(PDF) WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION ORGANISATION …• ORGANISATION MONDIALE DI LA SANTI Centre .igional du Pacifique occidental pour la promotion de pla"lIlealiOn a' du etudes appliquia. en - PDFSLIDE.NET (2024)


W •• I.rn Pacific R.gional Centra 'or th. Promotion of Environmental Pla"n,ng and Applied Studle. (PEPAS)


Centre .igional du Pacifique occidental

pour la promotion de la pla"lIlealiOn a' du etudes appliquia. en matiire d·environnama"t (PEPAS)

Unlversili Pertanian Campu&. Sardang. Selangor. Ma.!ays;.




Prepared by

W.E. Kreisel WHO Air Quality Management Adviser

Mailing Address: c/o P.O. Box 2550 Kuala Lumpur. MalaY81a

June 1981

Tel. Nos.: 358101 358304 355425 ext. 808


Talex No.: 31084






Introduc tion 1

Procedures for smoke evaluation 1

A. Measuring methods 1



Visual methods 2

Instrumental methods 2

2.1 Full-flow opacimeter 4

2.1.1 Operating procedures and precautions 4

2.1.2 Remarks 5

2.2 Part-flow or sampling-type opacimeter 5

2.3 Reflectance-or filter-type smokemeter 7

2.4 Mass determination of particulate emissions 8

B. Compliance tests 8





Annex 1

Annex 11

Free acceleration (no-load) test

Lug-down test

Swedish test

ECE Regulation No. 24

U.S. EPA Federal Register: Particulate Regulation for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines, 7 January 1981








Smoke from diesel-fuelled motor vehicles is recognized as a

major problem in many countries of the WHO Western Pacific and

South-East Asian reglons. Several developing countries in these

regions have yet to decide on their needs in relation to control

of diesel smoke emissions. At the WHO/UNEP Bi-regional Workshop

on Planning for Control of Emissions from Motor Vehicles held at

PEPAS ln November 1980, it was requested that PEPAS review the

various measurement methods and test procedures for diesel smoke

emissions. This document has been prepared in response to that


The issue of this document does not constitute a formal

publication. The author alone is responsible for views expressed

L~ the document.

Frank C. Go Director, PEPAS


Smoke is synonymous with air pollution to many people. Apart from the nuisance problems of diesel smoke l , it~ claimed adverse health effects mark the diesel engine as a prime target for public resentment and restrictive ordinances.

However, measurement of diesel smoke in an accurate and consistent manner has been a difficult problem for engine and vehicle manufacturers and agencies charged with enforcing smoke standards.

In this connexion, it has to be recalled that establishing a motor vehicle emission standard requires not only that a numerical value be prescribed which is characterized by a specific unit (g/km, percent opacity, etc.), but also that an exhaust emission test procedure be established by means of which the compliance of the actual quantity of emissions with the standard is determined.

Moreover, the emission test procedure consists of two parts:

(1) instruments which measure the pollutants as they are emitted from the exhaust pipe; and

(2) a definite, standardized way of exercising the engine while the pollutants are being measured (test cycle).

Correspondingly, several instruments and test cycles have been developed to measure diesel smoke under different test conditions.

In addition to instruments based on different physical principles and different scales, human observation and judgement are often used to relate smoke to a variety of standards.


A. Measuring Methods

As indicated above, two different methods for smoke evaluation are available, namely:

1 Diesel Smoke: black, white and blue smoke. White and blue smoke is essentially composed of colourless liquid particles (droplets) which reflect and refract the observed light. The observed colour results from the refractive index of the liquid in the droplets and the droplet size. White smoke is usually caused by condensed water vapor or liquid fuel droplets. Blue smoke is usually due to droplets resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel or lubricating oil. Black smoke consists of carbon (soot) particles, usually less than 1 )Um in size, resulting from incomplete combustion of fuel.

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(1) visual; and (2) instrumental methods.

They are applied to evaluate smoke emissions from diesel-fuelled engines which can be subjected to two different tests, namely to:

(a) full; and (b) short tests

Full tests generally serve to determine smoke emissions of prototype and/or assembly line diesel-fuelled engines on engine dynamometers while short tests are used to periodically control smoke emissions of in-use diesel-powered vehicles.

(1) Visual Methods

Visual methods of smoke observation and rating have been developed as simple and direct means of obtaining numerical ratings of black smoke. The smoke perceived by the observer is subjectively compared with one of the established grey scales (Ringelmann, Bacharach, photographic).

The observer must discipline himself to limit his observation to that portion of the plume immediately above the exhaust pipe exit and to compensate mentally for the factors of background colour, illumi­nation, and ambient light level. Hence, only trained personnel are able to judge the plume density accurately without being affected by variable field conditions. To ensure uniformity of observations among different observers the officials should have successfully completed a training course consisting of a series of lectures, and slide and film presen­tations, in addition to the actual training to evaluate the opacity of smoke emissions.

Countries that have established smoke standards for in-use diesel engines based on the Ringelmann scale are, among others, Australia (No. 2)1, Braz.il (No.2), and Mexico (No.3).

(2) Instrumental methods

Devices for measuring diesel smoke may be classified generally as follows:

1 Ringelmann, No. 2

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a) transmittancel-type smokemeters which measure the light extinction as a function of the smoke concentration. They are widely called opacimeters2 •

Opacimeters are divided into:

(i) full-flow opacimeters that measure the opacity of the full smoke plume;

(ii) part-flow or sampling opacimeters that measure the opacity of a portion of the exhaust gas which has been extracted from the exhaust pipe and passed through a measurement chamber of standardized size.

For (i), there are basically two types of full-flow light extinction smokemeters. One meter is an end-of-line meter or one that views the full plume emitted from the exhaust pipe. The other is an in-line meter which is inserted into the exhaust system pipe. This meter views the smoke across the path-length of the tube in which the sensors are mounted.

1 The amount of light that passes through a given length of aerosol 1.5 the difference between the amount of incident light 10 (A.) and the amount scattered and absorbed by the particles I (~). The BEER-LAMBERT law relates the incident and transmitted intensities of a beam of light passing through an aerosol of length L where K (~) is the extinction coefficient and I ().. )/10 ()..) is the transmittance:

(l) I (J...) = 10 (A.) exp (-K (J..) L J Since the extinction coefficient is a function of the wave-length,

the wave-length of light of the emitter and the detector have an important influence on the smokemeter reading (see page 5).

2 Opacity is that fraction of light transmitted from a source which is prevented from reaching the receiver due to the extinction of light over the effective path-length L:

(2 )


opacity = 1 - exp (-K ()...) L) = 1 - I (J..)/Io (A) = 1 - transmittance

In percent, Opacity (%) = 100% (1 - I (J... )/10 (J...)]

= 100% (1 - transmittance)

A smoke plume that does not attenuate any incident light is invisible and has a transmittance of 1 and an opacity of 0%. A plume that attenuates all the incident light is said to be 100% opaque, and therefore it has an opacity of 100% and a transmittance of O. An instrument that measures transmittance or opacity is referred to as an opacity meter, a transmissio­meter or an opacimeter.

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(b) reflectance-or filter-type smokemeters which measure the reflectance of the li.ght from a filter by means of which the smoke soot has been separated from the exhaust gases;

(c) mass determination of particulate emissions. In general, the procedure is to pass a measured amount of exhaust gas through a

. nearly "absolute" filter, capable of retaining on its surface the particulates that were suspended in the exhaust gas. By dividing the weighed mass of the particulates by the volume of exhaust gases sampled (at a specified temperature and pressure) the mass concentration of the particulates is determined.

2.1 Full-flow opacimeter

The best known full-flow opacimeter is the U.S. PHS smokemeter, developed by the U.S. Public Health Service for measuring diesel smoke. The instrument allows the opacity of smoke to be measured continuously under transient conditions. It may be calibrated in either a to 100 percent light transmittance or opacity which is accomplished by blocking the light beam for 100 percent opacity and by clean air for ~ero opacity. Full-flow opacimeters are widely used in the U.S.A.

2.1.1 Operating procedures and precautions

(i) Since the instrument is sensitive to smoke density and length of path (L) it is important to define the location when comparing readings with other smokemeters.

The optical unit shall be positioned near the end of the exhaust pipe (12.5 cm ± 2.5 cm) so that the light beam traverses the exhaust plume at right angles to the axis of the plume. However, the unit should not be rigidly mounted on the exhaust pipe since vibrations can shake the lamp filament which may be registered as "noise" on the recorder.

(ii) The terminal 50 cm of the exhaust pipe shall be a circular cross section and be free of elbows and bends.

(iii) The end of of the pipe shall be cut off squarely.

(iv) The term;_nal two feet of the exhaust pipe shall have a diameter in accordance with the engine tested, as specified below:

Maximum rated horse power

0<: HP ~ 101 101 < HP ~ ZOO 201 < HP ~ 300 301 ~ HP

Exhaust pipe diameter (em)

5 7.5 10 12.5

(v) The optical unit may be mounted on a movable frame (adaptor) which should not modify the unrestricted shape of the exhaust plume.

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(vi) To m~n~m~ze deposition of smoke particles on the light soun:e and the detector, an air curtain across these surfaces should be used provided that it does not measurably affect the opacity of the plume.

2.1.2 Remarks

Two important optical characteristics must be specified to obtain similar performance from full-flow opacimeters:

(1) the operating wave-length; and

(2) the light collimation of the instrument.

(1) Diesel smoke is optically ~ neutral, i.e. it has different spectral absorptivities at different wave-lengths. Generally, diesel exhaust particle size distribution shows that 10 percent of all particles have a mean diameter of more than 1 )Um and only 10 percent of less than 0.3 )Um; i.e., the major fraction of the particles has mean diameters in the range of the wave­length of visual light. According to tests, for wave-lengths of light above 0.8 JUm smoke becomes transparent. Consequently, opacimeters which use infrared light show less opacity than opacimeters which use light in the visible spectrum if all factors are held equal. Moreover, the photo-detector must match the emitter, i.e., the detector must provide maximum relative sensitivity for the selected wave-length of the emitter.

(2) The light collimation is important because the detector should be restricted from receiving light that has been scattered by the smoke from the measurement.

2.2 Part-flow or sampling-type opacimeter

The best known part-flow or sampling-type opacimeter is the Hartridge smokemeter. This device measures the opacity of a portion of the exhaust gas which has been extracted from the exhaust pipe and passed through a measuring chamber of standardized size. For comparison, a reference cell is filled with scavenging air. The opacity of the sample can be given in so-called Hartridge smoke units (H~S.U.) ranging from 0 (clear) to 100 (completely opaque) or in absolute units of light absorption from 0 to 00 (m-l ).

This type of smokemeter is prescribed, for example in Europe for type approval in full-load tests. However, several points have to be taken into consideration:

(a) SAEl does not recommend this type of device for transient smoke measurements since the transient or

1 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA. 15096, USA.

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physical response is too slow. The physical response is the time that is required to fill the measurement chamber completely (transport time approximately 0.2 - 0.6 lee.) with exhaus t.

The longer the physical response, the less accurate short transient smoke gusts are recorded since the sampling probe is not filled completely with smoke of high density.

(b) As a part-flow smokemeter, isokinetic l sampling has been suggested. However, this suggestion is controversial since the size distribution of diesel particulate matter contains 90% of particles less than l,iUm, hence precise isokinetic sampling is actually not required.

(c) Moreover, it has been shown that pulsation can cause difficulties in part-flow sampling. In general, the flow conditions in the exhaust system of an automobile are not stationary. Due to the opening and closing of the valves, pressure variations occur which are moving with the speed of sound. At locations with changes in diameter, pressure waves are reflected in the course of which the pressures of the waves running back and forth are added. Since the chances for reflections in the sampling probe connected with the measuring unit are generally higher than at the end of the exhaust pipe behind the sampling probe, essen­tially higher pressures might occur in the sampling probe than in the exhaust pipe.

Since almost all part-flow opacimeters are charged by the pressure in the exhaust system, the described effect can lead to an incomplete filling of the measuring chamber resulting in false measurements. In extreme cases, no exhaust flows in the sampling probe.

(d) It has also beerr reported that problems arise from condensate formation specifically from vehicles of which the exhaust pipes are conducted aloft vertically.

However, according to Hartridge Ltd., most of the problems referred to above have been overcome in advanced part-flow opacimeters which meet the requirements set forth in Annex 8 of the ECE Regulation No. 24 (Annex 1)2.

1 Isokinetic sampling can be defined as sampling by drawing a parti­culate suspension into a probe at the same linear velocity as that of the bulk of the suspension. Precise isokinetic sampling of particulate matter, however, is only necessary for particles with sizes greater than 3 ~.

2 Reprinted from No. 45-Tag der Ausgabe: Bonn, 29 August 1973.

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2.3 Reflectance- or filter-type smokemeter

A filter-type smokemeter which has achieved wide acceptance in diesel engine smoke-metering is the Bosch smokemeter. In this instrument, the sample (330 cm3 ) is drawn in through a controlled density paper filter disc by means of a spring- operated plunger which is held in its minimum position and released at will. Soot from the sample is deposited on the filter disc, causing it to darken in relation to the exhaust gas soot content. A separate, battery­powered photo-electric device measures the light reflected from the darkened filter. The darkening of the filter is given in Bosch smoke units (B.S.U.) in a range from 0 to 10. Calibration is accomplished with a calibrated perforated grid which corresponds to 5.0 B.S.Us.

variations on this type of instrument include a filter system with a roll of filter paper instead of invididual discs and a remote release system. Moreover, instead of determining the darkening of the smoke stain photo-electrically, the evaluation can also be done visually by comparing the darkness of the filter with the Bacharach grey scale ranging from 0 to 10. The latter is recommended by Bosch for the free acceleration test while the photo-electric evaluation of the smoke stain is proposed for the test with the engine under constant load.

The Bosch smokemeter can be used on a chassis dynamometer or on the road under all load conditions. To perform the test on the road the spring-loaded piston is released by means of a 5 m long flexible tube from the driving cab. This causes the exhaust sample (330 cm3) to be drawn in through the filter paper.

The reflectance-type smokemeter is widely used in Japan and Europe. Notwithstanding the advantages of this device it should be mentioned that:

(a) sampling under transient conditions is not recommended because of transport time lag and integration of the sample on the filter;

(b) the particle size has great influence on the measurement. Very fine particles pass through the filter which can be proved by putting two filter papers one after another. Greater soot particles are deposited on the surface while smaller particles can penetrate the paper more or less deeply depending mainly on the structure of the paper. Obviously, greater particles adhering to the surface have a greater influence on the measured result than particles which have penetrated the paper, independently of the evaluation (visual or photo-electrical) since the reflection of the light is a measure of the darkening of the filter;

(c) in contrast to the part-flow smokemeter, blue smoke connot be evaluated by the Bosch smokemeter which is a non­continuous measuring instrument.

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2.4 Mass determination of particulate emissions

The most complex method for the evaluation of particulate emissions in diesel exnaust is based on the dilution tunnel technique measuring the true mass of the particles (Annex 11)1. This system applies the PDP - CVS2 or CFV - CVS3 concept. Tne mass of particulate emissions is determined from a proportional mass sample collected on a filter (efficiency> 98 percent) and from the total flow over the test period.

Dilution tunnels have been used extensively to collect parti­culate samples from spark ignition engines. In the U.S.A. the use of dilution tunnel techniques for the determination of the mass of smoke emissions is necessary since emission standards for parti­culates are to be based on mass concentrations for light-and heavy­duty diesel engines4 • For compliance, a transient test cycle has been developed which is going to replace the current 13-mode steady­state test for heavy-duty diesel engines in the U.S. by 1985.

B. Compliance Tests

As stated above, diesel engines can be subjected to full and short tests, namely to test:

(1) at steady speeds over the full-load curve (full test)5 (Annex I)i

(2) at transient conditions (full test) (only for compliance with the particulate and gaseous emission standards) (Annex II);

1 Reprinted from Federal Register/Vol. 46, No. 4/Wednesday, January 7, 1981/Proposed Rules

2 Positive Displacement Pump - Constant Volume Sampling

3 Critical Flow Venturi - Constant Volume Sampling

4 The existing smoke test and standard (CFR, § 85.874-1) are being retained along with the addition of particulate testing. The current U.S.A. diesel smoke standard exists primarily for aesthetic reasons (refer Annex II page 52 )

Proposed particulate standards

a. Light-duty diesel vehicles 1985: 0.20 gm per vehicle mile b. Light-duty diesel trucks 1985: 0.26 gm per vehicle mile c. Heavy-duty diesel engines 1986: 0.25 gm per brake horsepower-hour

5 It is recognized that the Japanese and ECE compliance tests (full tests) for prototype and/or assembly line testing of diesel smoke emissions are only slightly different. However, the US l3-mode test for heavy-duty diesel engines differs significantly from both the Japanese and the ECE tests.


max. rpm



. ~

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(3) at free acceleration (no-load) (short test);

(4) at Lug-Down (short test);

(5) at single steady speed (Swedish Test) (short test).

Only the short tests which are generally used to periodically control smoke emissions of in use diesel-fuelled motor vehicles are reviewed below. In Europe, however, the free acceleration short test is also applied in addition to the test at steady speeds over the full-load curve to approve the type of diesel engines (Annex I). Here, the test at free acceleration is carried out especially to provide a reference figure for authorities which use this short test later to control smoke emissions of in-use diesel-fuelled motor vehicles.

(1) Free acceleration (No-load) Test

With the free acceleration test (if the test is carried out on a vehicle the gear is in neutral position and the clutch is engaged), the engine is accelerated from idling rpm quickly, but not violently, so as to obtain maximum delivery from the injection pump. The position is maintained until maximum governed speed is reached, then the accelerator is released until the engine resumes its idling speed and the opacimeter reverts to its initial state. The free acceleration is repeated at least six times to clean the exhaust system. The test absorption coefficient is the arithmetic mean of four consecutive values which should not vary by more than ± 0.25 m- l from each other. According to ECE Regulation No. 24 the opacity of the exhaust gases shall be measured with part-flow opacimeters or instruments which have proved to be equivalent for the engine considered.

In Japan, the free acceleration test is slightly modified and evaluated differently. The engine is warmed up by idling and accelerated rapidly with no load several times and left idling for five or six seconds (Fig. 1). Then the throttle is opened fully

Fig. 1: No-load Acceleration test in Japan

4 sec 4 sec 4 sec - .......-- ---- ~ -----.I ~

"'I n n r--. I ,-, ,---.


Starting of ,

I measurements I

I i

'----~ I

No-foad a.c~ler • ,

Idling for c 1 c 2

several 5-6 sec be-c

3 for

times fore meas. 15 seconds 115 seconds I 15 seconds -r

Three measurements

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and sampling of diesel smoke starts simultaneously by means of a reflectance-type smokemeter. Smoke sampling should be carried out for four seconds. The rate of diesel smoke contamination is the arithmetic mean of three consecutive cycles.

The free acceleration test, however, does not allow unambiguous identification of diesel engines which emit excessive smoke under load conditions. Evidently, due to the inherent physical properties of the diesel engine, the highest smoke emission should occur under full-load. Comprehensive investigations have shown that a correlation between smoke emissions under full-load at steady-speeds and at free acceleration does not exist. Hence, in Europe, the usefulness of the free acceleration short test for providing a reference figure for authorities which use this short test for in use diesel-fuelled motor vehicles has been questioned.

The biggest difference in smoke formation measured between the two tests occurs with turbocharged engines. Due to the short acceleration time the charger does not reach its rated rpm and this results in a lack of air pressure. Possibly, the charger may even act as sa throttle. With turbocharged engines the required amount of fuel at full-load is not injected since the full pressure charge is not available. Consequently, regarding the air/fuel ratio, entirely different conditions exist between free acceleration and the operation at full-load and steady-state of turbocharged engines resulting in a very poor correlation of the smoke emissions obtained from both tests.

Authorities which use a filter-type smokemeter to evaluate the smoke emitted over this short test have to take into consideration another aspect. The resulting measurement depends, among other things, on the sampling time of the filter pump and on the time required to accelerate the engine from idling to maximum governed rpm. Evidently, the accele­ration time will be different for different operators. Moreover, the sampling time of the filter pump has to coincide with the acceleration time. S;.nce the maximul'1 opacity during acceleration can occur in a very narrow rpm range, tile sampling time should at least comprise the total acceleration time. It has therefore been requested that the sampling time of ti.lter-type srnokerneters should be not less than two seconds. Moreover, difft,n'nt idling rpms dt the free acceleration test can also affect the test result. Figure 2 shows a schematic view of the problems referred to above.

Figure 2: Conditions at the Free Acceleration Test


max. gov. rpm

r rpm range


idling -


.... I "- .---~----

I I _aCC'~.L.--J

t j '>'.r.'



-.-.-.- opacity

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Due to the difficulties encountered great efforts have been made in Europe to develop a short test for periodical control of smoke emissions from in-use diesel-fuelled motor vehicles which meets the following requirements:

(a) allows identification of smoke emissions from diesel engines also under load;

(b) is economically feasible;

(c) can be conducted within a reasonable time;

(d) is sufficiently reproducible and accurate;

(e) corresponds with the opacity measured at the type approval l •

Alternative short test procedures, hitherto developed, are the

(1) Lug-Down test which is used in England; and the

(2) Swedish test carried out in Sweden.

(2) Lug-Down Test

With the Lug-Down test the wheels of the driven axle are running on rollers. The gear is engaged at which a final speed of 60 km/h is reached. The driver opens the throttle completely so that the engine runs at high idling under small load. A speed recorder which is coupled with the roller is adjusted to 100 percent at the resulting speed. By means of the brakes the engine is then brought to the full-load characteristic, and within 10 seconds steadily to 40 percent of the maximum governed rpm. The speed is measured by the speed of the rollers. During this lug-down the opacity is measured continuously with a part-flow opacimeter. The opacity versus roller speed is plotted by means of an xy-plotter. The smoke emissions are judged by the plotted curve which is compared with the limiting values of the smoke emission at full-load and steady speeds (Annex I).

In contrast to the free acceleration test, the engine is driven at the full-load characteristic. In addition, the engine is only driven in the rpm range which is covered also by the full-load test at steady speeds. However, the Lug-Down test also does not fully satisfy the requirements referred to above.

Major disadvantages are:

(a) relatively high expenditure for rollers and xy-plotter;

(b) adverse effects on the brakes;

1 Obviously, this is only required if the free acceleration test is used to provide a reference figure to the full-load test at steady speeds.

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(c) difficulties in interpreting the plotted curve (attaching the smoke curve accurately to the recorded speed);

(d) difficulties occuring with turbocharged engines;

(e) difficulties occuring with vehicles having automatic transmission.

(3) Swedish test

Corresponding to the Lug-Down test, the engine runs under full-load 1n a gear which allows it to reach a final speed of 60 to 70 km/h, however, only at 50 to 70 percent of the rated rpm. The selected rpm is kept constant for a few seconds before measuring the opacity of the exhaust gases by means of a full- or part-flow opacimeter or with a filter-type smokemeter. This test can also be carried out on the road.

In principle, the Swedish test is satisfactory, however, problems also arise from:

(a) adverse effects on the brakes; and

(b) the rather arbitrary selection of the rpm at which the smoke emissions are determined.

Especially, (b) is disadvantageous since the maximum smoke formation of the engine can occur in a very narrow rpm range (for example at maximum torque) which may not be covered when selecting the rpm rather arbitrarily between 50 to 70 percent of the rated rpm. A great number of engines even generate maximum smoke emissions at rated rpm. Obviously, these engines would be excluded from being identified as emitting excessive smoke by the Swedish test.

Probably, a short test at three different rpms, namely at the

(a) smallest full-load test rpm (of the European full-load test);

(b) rpm at maximum torque; and

(c) rated rpm

would allow the smoke characteristics at full-load to be judged more accurately. However, three consecutive tests overload the brakes and can only be carried out on the road if enough time is given for the brakes to cool between the tests. This, however, substantially increases the time required for the whole test procedure. Moreover, with turbocharged engines additional problems occur due to the inertia of the charger leading to prolonged braking times, thus resulting in higher brake temperatures especially with vehicles having greater power/weight ratios.

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Presently available major visual and instrumental methods for the evaluation of smoke emissions from diesel-fuelled motor vehicles have been reviewed. In addition, different short test procedures for the control of smoke emissions under standardized conditions have been disc ussed.

Taking into consideration the limitations of the different measuring methods, smoke emissions can be evaluated fairly accurately. However, at present, no satisfactory short test procedure is available to control smoke emissions of in-use diesel-powered motor vehicles at full-load.

Research is presently being carried out, predominantly in Europe, to develop a suitable short test procedure.

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ECE REGULATION NO. 24 Uniform Provisions Cone erning the Approval 0 f Vehic les

Equipped with Diesel Engines with Regard to the Emission of Pollutants by the Engine





















Application for approval


Specifications and tests

Modifications of the vehic le type

(;onformity 0 f produc t ion

Penalties for non~onfonnity of production

Names and addresses of technical services conducting approval tests, and of administrative departments





Essential characteristics of the vehicle and the engl.ne and information concerning the conduct of tests

Communication concerning the approval (or refusal or withdrawal of approval) of a vehicle type equipped with a diesel engine with regard to the emission of pollutants by the engine, pursuant to Regulation No. 24

Arrangement of the approval mark

Test at steady speeds over the full-load curve

Test under free acceleration

Specifications of reference fuel prescribed for















approval tests and to verify conformity of production 31

7 Limit values applicable in the test at steady speeds 32

8 Characteristics of opacimeters 33

9 Installation and use of the opacimeter 38

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1. Scope

This Regulation applies to emissions from diesel engines used for driving motor vehicles.

2. Definitions

For the purposes of this Regulation,

2.1 "Approval of a vehicle" means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to limitation of the emission of pollutants from the engine;

2.2 "Vehicle type" means a category of power-driven vehicles which do not differ in such essential respects as the vehicle and engine charac­teristics as defined in annex 1 to this Regulation;

2.3 "Diesel engine" means an engine which works on the compression­ignition prine iple;

2.4 "Cold-start device" means a device which by its operation temporarily increases the amount of fuel supplied to the engine and is intended to facilitate starting of the engine;

2.5 "Opacimeter" means an instrument for continuous measurement of the light absorption coefficients of the exhaust gases emitted by vehicles.

3. Application for approval

3.1 The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to limi­tation of the emission of pollutants from the engine shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.

3.2 It shall be accompanied by the undermentioned documents in triplicate and the following particulars:



a description of the engine type comprising all the particulars referred to in annex 1;

drawings of the combustion chamber and of the upper face of the piston.

3.3 An engine and the equipment prescribed in annex 1 to this Regulation for fitting it to the vehicle to be approved shall be submitted to the technical service conducting the approval tests defined in paragraph 5 of this Regulation. However, if the manufacturer so requests and the technical service conducting the approval tests agrees, a test may be carried out on a vehicle representative of the vehicle type to be approved.

4. Approval

4.1 If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the requirements of paragraph 5 below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.

- 16 -

4.2 An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. The same Contracting Party may not assign the same number to another vehicle type.

4.3 Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in annex 2 to this Regulation and of drawings and diagrams supplied, by the applicant for approval, in a format not exceeding A 4 (210 x 297 mm) or folded to that format and on an appropriate scale.

4.4 There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation,



an international approval mark consisting of:

a c irc Ie surrounding the let ter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which has granted approval l ;

the number of this Regulation, followed by the letter "R", a dash and the approval number, below the circle;

the following additional symbol: a rectangle surrounding a figure expressing in m- l the corrected absorption coefficient obtained, at the time of approval, during the test under free acceleration, and determined at the time of approval by the procedure described in annex 5, paragraph 3.2 to this Regulation.

4.5 The approval mark and the additional symbol shall be clearly legible and be indelible.

4.6 Annex 3 to this Regulation gives an example of the arrangement of the approval mark and of the additional symbol.

5. Specifications and tests

5.1 General

1 1 for the Federal Republic of Germany, 2 for France, 3 for Italy, 4 for the Netherlands, 5 for Sweden, 6 for Belgium, 7 for Hungary, 8 for Czechoslovakia, 9 for Spain, 10 for Yugoslavia, 11 for the United Kingdom and 12 for Austria. Subsequent numbers shall be assigned to other countries in the chronological order in which they ratify the Agreement concerning the Adoption of Uniform Conditions of Approval and ReciprQCal Recognition of Approval for Motor Vehicle Equipment and Parts, or in which they accede to that Agreement, and the numbers thus assigned shall be communicated by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement.

- 17 -

The components liable to affect the emission of pollutants shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to enable the vehicle, in ~ormal use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to comply w~th the provisions of this Regulation.

5.2 Specifications concerning cold-start devices



The cold-start device shall be so designed and constructed that it cannot be brought into or kept ~n action when the engine is running normally.

The provisions of paragraph 5.2.1 above shall not apply if at least one of the following conditions is m.et:

the light absorption coefficient of the gases emitted by the engine at steady speeds when measured by the procedure prescribed in annex 4 to this Regulation with the cold-start device operating, is within the limits prescribed in annex 7 to this Regulation;

keeping the cold-start device in operation causes the engine to stop within a reasonable time.

5.3 Specifications concerning the em~ss~on of pollutants




The em~ss~on of pollutants by the vehicle type submitted for approval shall be measured by the two methods described in annexes 4 and 5 to this Regulation, relating respectively to tests at steady speeds and to tests under free acceleration2 •

The emission of pollutants, as measured by the method described in annex 4 to this Regulations, shall not exceed the limits prescribed in annex 7 to this Regulation.

In the case of engines with an exhaust-driven super­charger the absorption coefficient measured under free acceleration shall not exceed the limit prescribed in annex 7 for the nominal flow value corresponding to the maximum absorption coefficient measured during the tests at steady speeds, plus 0.5 m- l •

5.4 Equivalent measuring instruments shall be allowed. If an instrument other than those described in annex 8 to this Regulation is used, its equivalence for the engine considered shall be required to be proved.

2 A test under free acceleration shall be carried out, especially in order to provide a reference figure for administrations which use this method to check vehicles in use.

- 18 -

6. Modification of the vehicle type

6.1 Every modification of the vehicle type shall be notified to the administrative department which approved the vehicle type. The department may then either:



consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and that in any case the vehicle still complies with the requirements; or

require a further test report from the technical service conducting the tests.

6.2 Confirmation of approval, specifying the alterations, or refusal of approval shall be communicated by the procedure specified in paragraph 4.3 above to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation.

7. Conformity of production

7.1 Every vehicle bearing an approval mark as prescribed under this Regulation shall conform, with regard to components affecting the emission of pollutants by the engine, to the vehicle type approved.

7.2 In order to verify conformity as prescribed in paragraph 7.1, a vehicle bearing the approval mark required by this Regulation shall be taken from the series.

7.3 Conformity of the vehicle with the approved type shall be verified on the basis of the description given in the approval form. In addition, verifying tests shall be carried out in the following conditions.



A vehicle which has not been run in shall be subjected to the test under free acceleration prescribed in annex 5 to this Regulation. The vehicle shall be deemed to conform to the approved type if the absorption coeffi­cient determined does not exceed by more than 0.5 m-1 the figure shown in the approval mark.

If the figure determined in the test referred to in paragraph 7.3.1 above exceeds by more than 0.5 m-l the figure shown in the approval mark, a vehicle of the type considered or its engine shall be subjected to the test at steady speeds over the full-load curve, as pres ribed in annex 4 to this Regulation. The emission levels shall not exceed the limits prescribed in annex 7 to this Regulation.

8. Penalties for non-conformity of production

8.1 The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in paragraph 7.1 are not complied with or if the vehicle or vehicles taken fail to pass the tests prescribed in paragraph 7.3 above.

- 19 -

l:l.L If a Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation thereof, by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters, the signed and dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".

9. Names and addresses of technical services conducting approval tests, and of administrative departments

The Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation shall communicate to the Secretariat of the United Nations the names and addresses of the technical services conducting approval tests and of the administrative departments which grant approval and to which forn.s certifying approval or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in oth. countries, are to be sent.
















- 20 -


Essential Characteristics of the Vehicle and the Engine and Information Concerning the Conduct of Tests l

Description of engine

Make .... " ................ " .. " " .. " .... " " " .......... " .. " " " " "

Type .... " ............................................................ ..

Cycle: four-stroke/two-stroke 2

Bore .................................................................... mm

Stroke mm

Number of cylinders •••••••.•••••••••••

Cylinder capacity ..................... cm3

. . 3 Compress10n rat10 •••••••••••.•.•••.••

System of cooling ••••••.••••.•••••••.•

Supercharger with/without 2 description of the system

Air filter: drawings, or makes and types ••••••••••••


Additional anti-smoke devices (if any, and if not covered by another heading)

Description and diagrams

Air intake and fuel feed

Description and diagrams of air intakes and their accessor1es (heating device, intake silencer, etc.)

1 In the case of non-conventional engines and'systems, particulars equivalent to those referred to here shall be supplied by the manufacturer.

2 Strike out what does not apply.

3 Specify the tolerance.




- 21 -

Fuel feed

Feed pump Pressure 3 .•••.•.••••••••.••••••...•• or charateristic diagram 3."" .. """"""""""""""".",,.,,"""

Injec tor system •••••••••••••••••••••

Pump •• """ ••• """""""".""",,.,,,, ... ,,"""""

Make(s) " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "


Delivery ••••••••••••• mm3 per stroke at pump speed of ••••••••• r.p.m. 3 at full injection; or characteristic diagram2, 3.""""""""""""""""""""""""""""",,.,,""""""" Mention the method used: On engine/on pump bench2

Injection advance Injection advance curve ••••••••••••• Timing""""""""""""""""""""""""",, •• ,," Injection piping ••••••••••••.••••••• Length •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Internal diameter ••••••••••••••••••. Injector(s) """""""""""""""""""""""""

Make(s) " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " .. " " " " " "

Type( s)

Starting pressure bars3 ••••••••••••• or characteristic diagram2 , 3 ••••••


Make(s) " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "


2 Strike out what does not apply.

3 Specify the tolerance.










5 .:~




- 22 -

Speed at which cut-off starts under load: ••..••••• r.p.m.

Maximum no-load speed ••.•••...••.••• r.p.m.

Idling speed: ....................... r.p.m.

Cold-start system



Description •••••••••••••••••••••••.•

Valve timing

Maximum lift of valves and angles of opening and closing in relation to dead centres

Reference and/or setting ranges2 •••••••••••••••••••••

Exhaus t system

Description and diagrams ••••••••••.••...••••••••••••••••

Mean back-pressure at maximum power: .•...•••••• rom water


Moment of inertia of engine flywheel .•••••••••••••••••••

Additional. moment of inertia with no gear engaged

................... ~ ~ ........................................................................................ ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

2. Strike out what does not apply.









- 23 -

Additional information on test conditions

Lubricant used

Make ................................ Type ••••.••.•••.••••••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••• (State percentage of oil in mixture if lubricant and fuel mixed)

Engine performances

Idling speed ....................... r.p.m. 3

Engine speed at maximum power •••••• r.p.m. 3

Power at the six points of measurement referred to 1n paragraph 2.1 of annex 4 to this Regulation

Power of the engine measured on the test bench: indicate the standard followed (BSI - CUNA - DIN - GOST - IGM -ISO - SAE, etc. 2 )

Power measured on the wheels of the vehicle







Engine speed (n) r. p.m.

Measured power HP

2 Strike out what does not apply.

3 Specify the tolerance.

- 24 -


(Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm»

Name of Administration

Communication concerning the approval (or refusal or withdrawal of approval) of a vehicle type equipped with a diesel engine with regard to the emission of pollutants by the engine, pursuant to Regulation No.24

Approval No.,. ...• <I. " ,. ,.,., I .....

1. Trade name or mark of the vehicle ••••.•••••••••.••.•••

2. Vehic Ie type •••••••••••.•.••••.....•••.••••••••••.••••

3. Manufacturer's name and address

4. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative

5. Emission levels

.~.l at steady speeds ..•.•.••.••....•••.•.•.••...••••.•••••

Engine Nominal flow G Limit absorption Measured speed (1 i tre s /sec and) values absorption

(r.p.m.) (m- I ) values (m-l )

1 ...... . . . . · .......... ,. ,. · ,. ..... ,. .. . ,. ,. ,. ,. ,. · ,. " ,. ,. ,. .. ,. ... I

2 · ,. .... ,. ,. .. ,. ,. ,. .. ,. ,. ,. ,. ,. ,. ,. ,. ,. . ,. .... ,. ,. ,. ,. ... . . I · .. ,. .. . ,. .... 3 · .. . ,. . ,. ,. . ,. · .. ,. ,. ,. .. ,. ,. ... ,. ,. ,. ,. · .. . ,. ,. . ... ,. .... ,. ,. · ,. . ,. ,. ,. ,. ,. .... ,.

4 · .. ,. ,. . ,. . ,. . · . . . . ... ,. ,. .... . , • · ...... . . . . . . . ,. . ,. . ,. ,. ,. ,. ,. .....

5 · .... ,. . ,. . ,. ,. ... ,. .. ,. ... ..... I · ,. ,. .. ,. . ,. .. ,. ,. .. ,. ,. · ,. . ,. ... ,. ,. ... 6 · ... ,. . ,. .. · . ..... .. . ,. .... ,. · .. . . ,. . ,. ,. ,. ,. .. ,. ,. . · ... ,. ,. ,. ,. . ,. .. .

- 25 -

5.2 under free acceleration

5.2.1 measured absorption value ...... <I •• 10 .......... 10 .... 10 .... 10 .... 10 10 ...... .

5.2.2 corrected absorption value •••••••••••••••••.••••••••••••• m- l

6. Make and type of the opacimeter ••••••••••••••••••••••••••

• .. " 10 10 • 10 ....... <II .................. 10 .... 10 ....... 10 .. 10 " ...... 10 ........................................ ..

7. Engine submitted for approval tests on •••••••••••••••••••

8. Technical service conducting approval tests ••••••••••••••

.. ...................................................... 10 .. 10 ................................................. ..

9. Date of test report issued by that service •.•••••••••••••

10. Number of test report issued by that service •••••••••••••

11. Approval granted/refusedl

12. Site of approval mark on the vehicle •••••••••••••••.•••••

13. Place .. ................................................................................................... ..

14. Date .............. 10 ..................................... IO .................. 10 .......................... ..

15. Signature .............. IO ............................................................................ ..

16. The following documents, bearing the approval number shown above, are annexed to this communication:

1 copy of annex 1 to this Regulation, duly completed and with the drawings and diagrams referred to attached;

••••• photograph(s) of the engine and its compartment.

1 Strike out what does not apply.


- 26 -


Arrangement of the Approval Hark

~ b >1

b £ 2


! i

b a

Minimum dimensions 12 5.6


The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that, pursuant to Regulation No. 24, the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to the emission of pollutants by the engine, been approved in the Netherlands (E 4) under approval number 2439. The corrected absorp­tion coefficient is 1.30 m-l •

- 27 -


Test at Steady Speeds over the Full-Load Curve

1. ~t~doction

This annex describes the method of determining emissions of pollutants at different steady speeds over the full-load curve.

1.2 The test may be carried out either on an engine or on a vehicle.

2. Measurement principle

2.1 The opacity of the exhaust gases produced by the engine shall be measured with the el~ine running under full load and at steady speed. Six measurements shall be made at engine speeds spaced out uniformly between that corresponding to maximum power and the higher of the following two engine speeds:

45 per cent of the engine speed corresponding to maximum power; and 1000 r.p.m.

The extreme points of measurement shall be situated at the limits of the interval defined above.

2.2 In the case of diesel engines fitted with an air supercharger which can be engaged at will, and where the entry into operation of the air supercharger automatically brings about an increase in the quantity of fuel injected, the measurements shall be made both with and without the supercharger working. For each engine speed, the higher of the two figures obtained shall be the result of the measurement.

3. Test conditions

3.1 Vehicle or engine






The engine or the vehicle shall be submitted in good . mechanical conditions. The engine shall have been run in.

The engine shall be tested with the equipment prescribed in annex 1 to this Regulation.

The settings of the engine shall be those prescribed by the manufacturer and shown in annex 1 to this Regulation.

The exhaust device shall not have any orifice through which the gases emitted by the engine might be diluted.

The engine shall be in the normal working condition prescribed by the manufacturer. In particular, the cooling water and the oil shall each be at the normal temperature prescribed by the manufacturer.

- 28 -

3.2 Fuel

The fuel shall be the reference fuel whose specifications are given Ln annex 6 to this Regulation.

3.3 Test laboratory

3.3.1 The absolute temperature T of the laboratory, expressed in degrees Kelvin, and the atmospheric pressure H, expressed in torr, shall be measured, and the factor F shall be determined by the formula

F =

3.3.2 For a test to be recognized as valid, the factor F shall be such that 0.98 ~ F ~ 1.02.

3.4 Sampling and measuring apparatus

The light-absorption coefficient of the exhaust gases shall be measured with an opacimeter satisfying the conditions laid down in annex 8 and installed in conformity with annex 9 to this Regulation.

4. Limit values

4.1 For each of the SLX engine speeds at which the absorption coefficient is measured pursuant to paragraph 2.1 above, the nominal gas flow G, expressed in litres per second, shall be calculated by means of the following formulae:

- for two-stroke engines

- for four-stroke engines

1n which:

G =

G =

v . n 60

V'n 120

v is the cylinder capacity of the engine expressed in litres; and

n is the engine speed 1n revolutions per minute.

4.2 For each engine speed the absorption coefficient of the exhaust gases shall not exceed the limit value given in the table in annex 7. Where the value of the nominal flow is not one of those given 1n that table, the limit value applicable shall be obtained by interpolation on the principle of proportional parts.

- 29 -


Test Under Free Acceleration

1. Test conditions

1.1 The test shall be carried out on the vehicle or engine which has undergone the test at steady speeds described in anne~ 4 to this Regulation.



If the engine test is a bench test it shall be carried out as soon as possible after the test for measurement of opacity under full load at steady speed. In parti­cular, the cooling water and the oil shall be at the normal temperatures stated by the manufacturer.

If the test is carried out on a stationary vehicle the engine shall first be brought to normal operating condition during a road run. The test shall be carried out as soon as possible after completion of the road run.

1.2 The combustion chamber shall not have been cooled or fouled by a prolonged period of idling preceding the test.

1.3 The test conditions prescribed in anne~ 4, paragraphs 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3, shall apply.

1.4 The conditions prescribed in annex 4, paragraph 3.4, with regard to the sampling and measuring apparatus shall apply.

2. Test methods

2.1 If the test is a bench test the engine shall be disconnected from the brake, the latter being replaced either by the rotating parts driven when no gear is engaged or by an inertia substantially equivalent to that of the said parts.

2.2 If the test is carried out on a vehicle the gear-change control shall be set in the neutral position and the drive between engine and gearbo~ engaged.

2.3 With the engine idling, the accelerator control shall be operated quickly, but not violently, so as to obtain ma~imum delivery from the injection pump. This position shall be maintained until m~imum engine speed is reached and the governor comes into action. As soon as this speed is reached the accelerator shall be released until the engine resumes its idling speed and the opacimeter reverts to the corresponding conditions.

2.4 The operation described in paragraph 2.3 above shall be repeated not less than six times in order to clear the e~haust system and to allow for any necessary adjustment of the apparatus. The ma~imum opacity values read

- 30 -

in each successive acceleration shall be noted until stabilized values are obtained. No account shall be taken of the values read while, after each acceleration, the engine is idling. The values read shall be regarded as stabilized when four of them consecutively are situated within a band width of 0.25 m- l and do not form a decreasing sequence. The absorption coeffi­cient ~ to be recorded shall be the arithmetical mean of these four values.

2.5 Engines fitted with an air supercharger shall be subject, where appropriate, to the following special requirements:



in the case of engines with an air supercharger which is coupled or driven mechanically by the engine and is capable of being disengaged, two complete measurement cycles with preliminary accelerations shall be carried out, the air supercharger being engaged in one case and disengaged in the other. The measurement result recorded shall be the higher of the two results obtained; and

in the case of engines with an air supercharger which can be cut out by means of a driver-operated by-pass, the test shall be carried out with and without the by­pass. The measurement result recorded shall be the higher of the results obtained.

3. Determination of the corrected value of the absorption coefficient

3.1 Notation

XM value of the absorption coefficient under free acceleration measured as prescribed in paragraph 2.4 of this annex;

XL corrected value of the absorption coefficient under free accelera t jon',

SM value of L;le absorp tin coefficient measured at steady speed (annex 4, paragraph 2.1) which is closest to the prescribed limit value corresponding to the same nominal flow;

SL value of the absorption coefficient prescribed in annex 4, paragrapr 4.2, for the nominal flow corresponding to the point of measurement which gave the value SM;

L effective length of the light path in the opacimeter.

3.2 The absorption coefficients being expressed in m- l and the effective length of the light path being expressed in metres. the corrected value XL. is given by the smaller of the following two expressions:

X' L SL \t


or " X = X + 0.5 L ~1

- 31 -


specifications of Reference Fuel Prescribed for Approval Tests and to Verify Conformity of Production

Density 15/40 C


50% 90% Final boiling point

Cetane index

Kinematic viscosity at 1000 F

Sulphur content


Cloud point

Aniline point

Carbon residue on 10% bottoms

Ash content

Water content

Copper - corrosion test at 1000 C

Net calorific value

Strong acid number

Limits and units

0.830 + 0.005

Min. 2450 C 330 + 100 C Max. 3700 C

54 + 3


0.4 + 0.1% by weight

min. 550 C

max. - 70 c

69 + 50 c

max. 0.2% by weight

max. 0.01% by weight

max. 0.05% by weight

max. 1

10,250 + 100 kcal/Kg 18,450 + 180 BTU/lb

nil mg KoH/g


ASTMI D 1298-67

ASTM D 86-67

ASTM D 976-66

ASTH D 445-65

ASTM D 129-64

ASTH D 99-66

ASTM D 97-66

ASTH D 611-64

ASTM D 524-64

ASTM D 482-63

ASTM D 95-62

ASTM D 130-68

ASTM D 2-68 (Ap.VI)

ASTM D. 974-64

Note: The fuel must be based only on straight-run distillates, hydrodesulphurized or not, and must contain no additives.

1 Initials of the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103, U.S.A. The figures after the dash denote the year when a standard was adopted or revised. Should any ASTM standards be amended, the standards adopted in the years quoted above will remain applicable unless all Parties to the 1958 Agreement which apply this Regulation agree to replace them by later standards.

- 32 -


Limit Values Applicable 1n the Tests at Steady Speeds


Nominal flow G litres/second

- --- ----

S 42 45 50

55 60 65 70

-------75 80 85


90 95


105 110 115

120 125 130

135 140

I 145 I 1-- j I 150 j ,

~-155 !

j 160 I

I 165 , 170 I

I 175 1 -, /---,

180 185

I r 190

195 > 200

Absorption coefficient K

m-1 --~ .-

2,26 2,19 2,08

1,985 1,90 1,84 1,775

-----.---1,72 1,665 1,62

. - --' - ._-- -------

1,575 1,535 1,495 ------

1,465 1,425 1,395 I

::;:: ··1 1 , 32 _ __ _ j

- .....

1,30 I

1,27 J 1,25


1.,225 I 1,205 I 1,19 I --------1

1,17 1,155

~ 1,14

1,125 , I

1,11 .

1,095 --------

1,08 1,065

Although the above values are rounded to the nearest 0.01 or 0.005, this does not mean that the measurements need to be made to this degree of accuracy.

- 33 -


Characteristics of Opacimeters

1. Scope

This annex defines the conditions to be met by opacimeters used in the tests described in annexes 4 and 5 to this Regulation.

2. Basic specification for opacimeters

2.1 The gas to be measured shall be confined in an enclosure having a non­reflecting internal Burface.

2.2 In determining the effective length of the light path through the gas, account shall be taken of the possible influence of devices protecting the light source and the photoelectric cell. This effective length shall be indicated on the instrument.

2.3 The indicating dial of the opacimeter shall have two measuring scales, one in absolute units of light absorption from a to CX) (m-l ) and the other linear from 0 to 100; both scales shall range from 0 at total light flux to full scale at complete obscuration.

3. Construction specifications

3.1 General

The design shall be such that under steady-speed operating conditions the smoke chamber is filled with smoke of uniform opacity.

3.2 Smoke chamber and opacimeter casing

3.2.1 The impingement on the photoelectric cell of stray light due to internal reflections or diffusion effects shall be reduced to a m~n~mum (e.g. by finishing internal surfaces in matt black and by a suitable general layout).

3.2.2 The optical characteristics shall be such that the combined effect of diffusion and reflection does not exceed one unit on the linear scale when the smoke hamber is filled with smoke having an absorption coefficient near 1.7 m- l •

3.3 Light source

The light source shall be an incandescent lamp with a colour temperature ~n the range 2,800 to 3,2500 K.

- 34 -

3.4 Receiver



The receiver shall consist of a photoelectric cell with a spectral response curve similar to the photopic curve of the human eye (maximum response in the range 550/570 nm; less than 4 per cent of that maximum response below 430 nm and above 680 nm).

The construction of the electrical circuit, including the indicating dial, shall be such that the current output from the photoelectric cell is a linear function of the intensity of the light received over the operating­temperature range of the photoelectric cell.

3.5 Measuring scales




The light-absorption coeff~ient k shall be calculated by the formula tJ = tlJo • e - l, where L is the effec t ive length of the light path through the gas to be measured, {Jo the incident flux and ~ the emergent flux. When the effective length L of a type of opacimeter cannot be assessed directly from its geometry, the effective length L shall be determined

either by the method described in paragraph 4. of this annex; or

through correlation with another type of opacimeter for which the effective length LS


The relationship between the 0-100 linear scale and the light-absorption coefficient k is given by the formula

1 L

loq -e ( 1 -N


where N is a reading on the linear scale and k the corresponding value of the absorption coefficient.

The indicating dial of the opacimeter shall enable an absorption coefficient of 1.7 m- l to be read with an accuracy of 0.025 m-1 •

3.6 Adjustment and calibration of the measuring apparatus

3.6.1 The electrical circuit of the photoelectric cell and of the indicating dial shall be adjustable so that the pointer can be reset at zero when the light flux passes through the smoke chamber filled with clean air or through a chamber having identical characteristics.



- 35 -

With the lamp switched off and the electrical measuring circuit open or short-circuited, the reading on the absorption-coefficient scale shall be 00 , and it shall remain at 00 with the measuring circuit reconnected.

An intermediate check shall be carried out by placing in the smoke chamber a screen representing a gas whose known light-absorption coefficient k, measured as described in paragraph 3.5.1, is between 1.6 ml and 1.8 m-l • The value of k must be known to within 0.025 m-l • The check consists in verifying that this value does not differ by more than 0.05 m- l from that read on the opacimeter indicating dial when the screen is introduced between the source of light and the photoelectric cell.

3.7 Opacimeter response





The response time of the electrical measuring circuit, being the time necessary for the indicating dial to reach 90 per cent of full-scale deflection on insertion of a screen fully obscuring the photoelectric cell, shall be 0.9 to 1.1 second.

The damping of the electrical measuring circuit shall be such that the initial overswing beyond the final steady reading after any momentary variation in input (e.g. the calibration screen) does not exceed 4 per cent of that reading in linear scale units.

The response time of the opacimeter which is due to physical phenomena in the smoke chamber is the time taken from the start of the gas entering the chamber to complete filling of the smoke chamber; it shall not exceed 0.4 second.

These provisions shall apply solely to opacimeters used to measure opacity under free acceleration.

3.8 Pressure of the gas to be measured and of scavenging a~r





The pressure of the exhaust gas in the smoke chamber shall not differ by more than 75 mm (water gauge) from the atmos­pheric pressure.

The variations in the pressure of the gas to be measured and of the scavenging air shall not cause the absorption coefficient to vary by more than 0.05 m- l in the case of a gas having an absorption coefficient of 1.7 m-l •

The opacimeter shall be equipped with appropriate devices for measuring the pressure in the smoke chamber.

The limits of pressure variation of gas and scavenging air in the smoke chamber shall be stated by the manufacturer of the apparatus.

- 36 -

3.9 Temperature of the gas to be measured



At every point in the smoke chamber the gas temperature at the instant of measurement shall be between 700 C and a maximum temperature specified by the opacimeter manufacturer such that the readings over the temperature range do not vary by more than 0.1 m-l when the chamber is filled with a gas having an absorption coefficient of 1. 7 m- l •

The opacimeter shall be equipped with appropriate devices for measuring the temperature in the smoke chamber.

4. Effective length "L" of the opacimeter

4.1 General



4.1. 3

In some types of opacimeter the gas between the light source and the photoelectric cell, or between transparent parts protecting the source and the photoelectric cell, is not of constant opacity. In such cases the effective length L shall be that of a column of gas of uniform opacity which gives the same absorption of light as that obtained when the gas is normally admitted into the opacimeter.

The effective length of the light path is obtained by comparing the reading N of the opacimeter operating normally with the reading No obtained with the opacimeter modified so that the test gas fills a well defined length Lo·

It will be necessary to take comparative readings in quick succession to determine the correction to be made for shifts of zero.

4.2 Method of assessment of L




The test gas shall be exhaust gas of constant opacity or a light-absorptive gas of a gravimetric density similar to that of exhaust gas.

A column of length Lo of the opacimeter, which can be filled uniformly with the test gas, and the ends of which are substantially at right angles to the light path, shall be accurately determined. This length Lo shall be close to the effective length of the opacimeter.

The mean temperature of the test gas in the smoke chamber shall be measured.






- 37 -

If necessary, an t!xpans10n tank 01 sufficient capacity to damp the pulsations and of compact design may be incor­porated in the sampling line as near to the probe as possible. A cooler may also be fitted. The addition of the expansion tank and of the cooler should not unduly disturb the composition of the exhaust gas.

The test for determining the effective length shall consist in passing a sample of test gas alternately through the opacimeter operating normally and through the same apparatus modified as indicated in paragraph 4.1.2.

The opacimeter readings shall be recorded continuously during the test with a recorder whose response time is equal to or shorter than that of the opacimeter.

With the opacimeter operating normally, the reading on the linear scale of opacity is N and that of the mean gas temperature expressed in Kelvin degrees is T.

With the known length 1.0 filled with the same test gas, the reading on the linear scale of opacity is No and that of the mean gas temperature expressed in Kelvin degrees is To.

The effective length will be

L=La ';0 lCXJ{ 1


N 100

No 100

The test shall be repeated with at least four test gases giving readings evenly spaced between the readings 20 and 80 on the linear scale.

The effective length L of the opacimeter will be the arithmetic average of the effective lengths obtained as stated in paragraph 4.2.6 for each of the gases.

- 38 -


Installation and Use of the Opacimeter

1. Scope

This annex specifies the installation and use of opacimeters for the tests described in annexes 4 and 5 to this Regulation.

2. Sampling opacimeter

2.1 Installation for steady-speed tests


2.1. 2

2.1. 3


2.1. 5

The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the probe to that of the exhaust pipe shall not be less than 0.05. The back pressure measured in the exhaust pipe at the opening of the probe shall not exceed 75 mm (water gauge).

The probe shall be a tube with an open end facing forwards in the axis of the exhaust pipe, or of the extension pipe if one is required. It shall be situated in a section where the distribution of smoke is approximately uniform. To achieve this, the probe shall be placed as far downstream in the exhaust pipe as possible, or, if necessary, in an extension pipe so that, if D is the diameter of the exhaust pipe at the opening, the end of the probe is situated in a straight portion at least 6 D in length upstream of the sampling point and 3 D in length downstream. If an extension pipe is used, no air shall be allowed to enter the joint.

The pressure in the exhaust pipe and the characteristics of the pressure drop in the sampling line shall be such that the probe collects a sample sensibly equivalent to that which would be obtained by isokinetic sampling.

If necessary, an expansion tank of compact design and of sufficient capacity to damp the pulsations may be incor­porated in the sampling line as near to the probe as possible. A cooler may also be fitted.

The design of the expansion tank and cooler shall not unduly disturb the composition of the exhaust gas.

A butterfly valve or other means of increasing the sampling pressure may be placed in the exhaust pipe at least three 3D downstream from the sampling probe.



- 39 -

The connecting pipes between the probe, the cooling device, the expansion tank (if required) and the opacimeter shall be as short as is possible while satisfying the pressure and temperature requirements prescribed in annex 8, paragraphs 3.8 and 3.9. The pipe shall be inclined upwards from the sampling point to the opacimeter, and sharp bends where soot might accumulate shall be avoided. If not embodied in the opacimeter, a by-pass valve shall be provided upstream.

A check shall be carried out during the test to ensure that the requirements of annex 8, paragraph 3.8, concerning pressure and those of annex 8, paragraph 3.9, concerning the temperature in the measuring chamber are observed.

2.2 Installation for tests under free acceleration





The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the probe to that of the exhaust pipe shall not be less than 0.05. The back pressure measured in the exhaust pipe at the opening of the probe shall not exceed 75 mm (water gauge).

The probe shall be a tube with an open end facing forwards in the axis of the exhaust pipe, or of the extension pipe if one is required. It shall be situated in a section where the distribution of smoke is approximately uniform. To achieve this, the probe shall be placed as far downstream in the exhaust pipe as possible or, if necessary, in an extension pipe so that, if D is the diameter of the exhaust pipe at the opening, the end of the probe is situated in a straight portion at least 6 D in length upstream of the sampling point and 3 D in length downstream. If an extension pipe is used, no air shall be allowed to enter the joint.

The sampling system shall be such that at all engine speeds the pressure of the sample at the opacimeter is within the limits specified in annex 8, paragraph 3.8.2. This may be checked by noting the sample pressure at engine idling and maximum no-load speeds. Depending on the characteristics of the opacimeter, control of sample pressure can be achieved by a fixed restriction or butterfly valve, in the exhaust pipe or extension pipe. Whichever method is used, the back pressure measured in the exhaust pipe at the opening of the probe shall not exceed 75 mm (water gauge).

The pipes connecting with the opacimeter shall also be as short as possible. The pipe shall be inclined upwards from the sampling point to the opacimeter, and sharp bends where soot might accumulate shall be avoided. A by-pass valve may be provided upstream of the opacimeter to isolate it from the exhaust-gas flow when no measurement is being made.

- 40 -

3. Full-flow opacimeter

The only general precautions to be observed ~n steady-speed and free­acceleration tests are the following:

3.1 Joints in the connecting pipes between the exhaust pipe and the opacimeter shall not allow air to enter from outside.

3.2 The pipes connecting with the opacimeter shall be as short as possible, as prescribed in the case of sampling opacimeters. The pipe system shall be inclined upwards from the exhaust pipe to the opacimeter, and sharp bends where soot might accumulate shall be avoided. A by-pass valve may be provided upstream of the opacimeter to isolate it from the exhaust-gas flow when no measurement is being made.

3.3 A cooling system may also be required upstream of the opacimeter.

- 41 -

Additional Useful Reference Material

1. W. H. Lipkea and J. H. Johnson. The Physical and Chemical Character of Diesel Particulate

Emissions - Measurement Techniques and Fundamental considerations, SAE paper, 780108, March 1978.

2. Diesel Engine Smoke Measurement (Steady-State), SAE J2SS (SAE Information Report), SAE Handbook, 1977.

3. Measurement Procedure for Evaluation of Full-Flow, Light­Extinction Smokemeter Performance, SAE JllS7 (SAE Recommended Practice), SAE Handbook, 1978.

4. Periodische Uberwachung der Schadstoffemissionen von Kraftfahrzeugen (Periodical Control of Motor Vehicle Emissions) Verlag TUV Rheinland, Koln 1979 (only in German)


, \




Wednesday 7 January 1981


Part III

Environmental Protection Agency

Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Particulate Regulation for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines


1910 Federal Rt'gisler I Vol. 46. No.4 I W"dnesdilY. /dnuary 7 'J9!H I I'ruposed Rule!1



I Docket No. A-tO-ll; AMS-FRL-1I28-7\

Control of Air PolI"tlon From New Motor VehICle. and New Motor Vehicle Engine .. Putlcu .. t, Regulation 'QI' H.lvy-Duty DIe ... EngIne. AGINCY: f:nvironmental Protection Agency. .

ACTION: Proposed rule. ----_. SUMMAIIY: The proposed reguloUon would cslubh.h II siandard (or the "minion IIf parliculale mailer from hCllvy·duly dieacl enginel. ' Beginning with the 1986 model year. this .tandurd would til) O.2!;ogrom per brllke horsepower·hour Ig/BHP-hrl 10.093 gram I"" mOM'ljll"le Ig/.M/II. Allholl8h Ihi, 8111ndll,.1 rcpr~8ent. about a two-third. rcdu~I"'n ill purticulale emi .. lon. from unconlrolled 1.,\,e1I, it I. ludsed fea.lble withoul ill~r"'l»ing eminions of nltrosen oxido" (NO",. The propoaed regulotlon would 11180 .. mend the emi •• ion lelling reHullllion8 al 40 CFR ParI 88 10 e91"bh.h prol:edorel for Ihe IIwusurcmenl o( particulate emi.sions from new heavy·duly diesel engine. to delermin., compliance with Ihe parti~ululc emission II .. ndard. In uddilion. Ihis regulation would i,":"rl'''' "Ie complillllce lealill8 of prodllcti'''1 hd,\,y-duly eDRinel for parlil:ulale.enliB810nl ulllier the Selective Enforcement Auditing (SEAl prog,..1Il beginnill8 wllh Ih8 1986 modlll y"ur.

In Ii relaled rulcmllking IIction, EPA WIll BUlin propose 8 revised NOx emission slAndard for Ihese same t",avy·duly diesel., along wilh revised NOx emission SlundHrds for hght-duly (,uds "!HI heuvy·dUIY g080line engines for tllilli Hnd luler model yeu,.. In order I" enR"'", Ihul Ihese Iwo propo • .,I. lire lIlulUlIlly cumplltible, EPA will realricl Ihe d"!:I"1'" of NO" emission reduction re'llIi",<I from h.lI1vy-duly diesel. 10 Ihal whia:h " ilU .. ,nable with the proposed I'.arliculdl" .I~nddrd in effect. This I d"linnshlp belween Ihe Iwo .. ul.,mil~illll aClion. uffeeling heavy.duty docsels IS "ulhned in grealer detuilluter III Ih" ."o:\llln "nlilled T,'chllology. DATil: I'"b/ie lIeuring: There will be .. pllhlit: h"aring on the provisions of this I""P'"'''' wHul"lion approximalely 45 d"ys IIfl,., p .. hhcation o( Ihis document. lilt' ,,,.,, I II, .. " .lIld place ... ill be

':\ h'.l< ,\ Ibl\ "I".~H'I ,'njflnt' I. un)' ,JU'~d t:"w"e "h.',llu 1"'\\1'1 .1 11I'.n ~ dill) \lt~tudl'. '-"hll hi' tUl tlA' Ih., '1l.,,1 \. lillI!' ~ .. IHI!lI· ~rU'8 "'1·IIIi:h- """I~hll'lllnlt ,.\, ",·,b H .• '''' ,1l,UIUh ;,JI WhU.L· f,VIJI"II'rt'u r.\V't ....

.. .\ _\11,,11., fl,.'1

•• r~13iiC d

unnounced tH U lull'l ddll' iii i;

.uhlellU"nl ""de'al WtlKillllf ""Ilea. EPA will conoid", "II writl.·"

Comnll'nll rcccl\;cd on Of b,efufi' tOry ;,Oth day following II", pilililc bedrong. FJ';, rCllueslB Ihut. 10 dll' e,lent pos.ibl". commenla be .uL.lIlltteu prior 10 the hCllrinjj. ADDlllSIIla: lnlcre.led persons mlly submil wrillen commenl, to the: C~il1("l Dockel Section A-130. W esl Tower Lobby Gallery I, U.S. Environment,,1 Prolection Ag"ncy. Alln DOt.~el No. A­IIG-t8, 401 M Slrtiel SW. Wa.hjllHI'J!l. D.C. 20400. Also, ~J'A '''Quesls thaI COmmunle,. forwijrd live cop,es ~0 U.S_ Environnlenlul Prol"clion Agency. AH~' Director, Emil8ioll Conlrol Tc~hnoi()I\Y Dlvi8ion,2565 Plymouth Kl'"cI, fum Arbor, MI48105.

Copies of mul"ri"l. relcYllol 10 \I.,,, rul"," .. I<lng aclion are cunlll",,·d in Public Dockel No. A~llIlIt thc U.S. Environmental Prolc<:lirJn A8en~y Central Dockel S'~"\lon, Wesl ToWtlt Lobby C"lIery l. '101 M 511"11,,1. 9.V; .. Wliahilllllon, D.C. 2(14~· Tho C.mt",! Dockol Section Is open I" vl.i!Or!! Mond .. y IhroUj!h f'riduy f, .• m HIX! a.m. 10 4:00 p.m. IA. provided in .0 eFR Pori :; Ihe Agency m .. y ch~'1IC d rf'"8~n",ble f"" for copyill8 aervicc6. ) fOIl PUllTNEIIIHI'ORMA nON CO/.l·'·Acr: Richard A. Rykowski. EII\ IIlIrunen;.,i Prolectlon Agency. 25t1b Plymouth H,,",:. Ann Arbor, MI481U5, Telepho(.e: (:!13) 668-4339(P1rS1374-UJJO. ~MlIfTAIIY IHPOIIMATIOfC: Commelillf and the Public Dod"l.­Ourill8 (innl rulcmuklll8 FJ'A w:1I consider "II wrillen commenls ";,cal,ed on or before Ihe 30lh day following Iho public he"ring. EPA ,e'lut'sls thllt 10 fhe exlenl po&Sibl ... communis be suhmilled prior 10 Ihe hearin[l EP,\ will keep the record o( the public huuring open for lubmls8ion 01 rebuII,,1 601.1 01i)6r In(ormaUolO fu\lowiJljj Ihc dOlO IJf the h".rlng unhllhc .. hove menlloned dilid.

It il EPA'. inltH"iun 10 ulura 1111 Intere.led parti," , .. , ovvorlun;ty 10 ,Iudy all in(ormllllon wh,ch may be;;omll Ihe b ... i, for EPA', final ~clion In Ihi~ proceed,ng. Accordingly. Ihe Agel\cy will nol conSider In Ihis rUlema\dug any malll" .. 1 which cltnnul be mlldu pubiidy IIvaiiablo. P"rUea who wish to submit 'n(orm~I"m In rC8p"n.~ 10 IIli6 Notice of Proposed RIII"lIld~lll» .. re ( .. "Unned thil I EPA WIll nol cVIl.,ider, oul WIll relum ;., the comrnllnler, UIlV commonls which lit" Glulmcd. tn wh;,I" 01" In purl, I" bo confidcnllol.

Authorily: Sltltulor~' tJulhl)flfy und mUoddle (or (hi. ,u,;lion .. r~ pr\lVidt!(1 tlndcr SelJionl 202. 200 dnd JUII" I of Ihe Ci"ttn Au' Act 1~2 U.S.C. '.>~I. 7~25 uno 70(1). S~Cllt>n ZIlZ'.II3J(A/tllll uf Ih. 1\0:1 )IN.I.!,,. Ihut. "The

}\(;:j"r.iHl"uIOf sh<..!11 pr':Bt...rihe reguJuliunH Hilda p,..Ifa*gnph ,I) of • .hJ •• ubl(Jcliun HPpliclIhie to tlrtlll&lOI)H or pBlticulule muller h'f,dl'. cL _ ':it'~ ';r (:.J ;lh~\ .. ri{·11 of lIehtc:lt!9

m'Lnuf~lc~vt:d UlFHlM und Miler n\Ouel ~'Cdf h,,'q i :,'1' ;JUfh1.\.: un). f'~r1i~~t mudd year. if P(~.~lj~4\blt!,,, '>c~,~;on 2l)(:~,hl}PJ pTO\dJc8.ln ~l'; ih;:.;. ;llt! Adm.II~iB1raIO( &hd.lllest. or t;:';CI:t' ',', be teo!leu L:1 such mH"ner liS he ci,,:,~,;,~: }ii-;'?i'C~,t'H,H? >\~:y llfi","' motor vehicle

'J ,.ti';~'n:~L1.":: whlJtnt'r such IIchide ... (. .. :1' ['~rn1$ with the N'g\.!I~1 ion; pre8cribed unde-f 5.ec\iDn (02 of thia Act," Scchon 301(d} ~:;;'Y"',-.. i(IL:~ :d pt'! t. that "~he Administrl:ttor is .'.'i.j~~Hl'~~l,.,~r.; to r,:cscribc sLich r-!>~\.i.loCion8 1:118

tt;~ nfC,'f.,'j.l.i:ry W !:8rry ou.' his functions unulJ£ 11\15 .:""{:'

S'OCi(H' (,,'/; ,:-;.' Deapfte 8lRIliflCd01 gains Jt> \) \' :,I:;t; [11 or tO~lJ! 6U~f).' rldpd

i" rtk~ __ !tdi: ,,': .c:P) t~,\)if9jons from t':!,I~;(1~1;Jr}! S~),:.H'q:Jt, dH~f'\;' HJ'~' ~!m many tL:' qUfJ.:Hy h=SioHS \'~ihich 1.!~·f' not able 10 m,'d ihe i''''''~l''ry Natinnol Ambienl Air (JiHlity :JIsndHrd (NAAQS) for TSI' of ',r;, T'-:~";';fiJ.m;; per cubi,c mt1tcr, A6 ~,iH!sei d'lt,!I;)"?O cr:ntinue over timt! to rh",,',er ~i!t H ,"'~n ~re:;,ter portion of the n~'i('a",: h'dj:vy·d'.il~1 vehicle8 (on·thc~ {(,2. d t.uck, ,:nd trHles whose gross vpl'lId~ w'21.~h' !'Hhng exceeds 8,500 ~ounJ&j, the,!, contributiun to ambient lewb ",i ldal ausI'"nded parliculale ;·:vJp! ·'""lll1c:·,o6e ,,~er levels thaI are dread, r,ignificanl. Curreol heavy-dUly jj;"hels e:-n!i more thaJl twice the ",,,'Iic");;[£ per mile "milled by heuv)" (~I,:')' gB~;f\line engines operated on .,-0;'·,,0 ;1auoline. Beginoing wilh Ihe 19114 mr,de1 Y"U'. heavy ·duty gllsoline engines ",·.Ii fer th,., mos! pHr! be equipped with c,,,n!.lI8'8 in order 10 comply wilh ·,.i"$.,,;1 ;HtI"dHrdo (or hydrocarbons

.f.lnci ctHbon monoxide. These engines wiil Ih~(! be cpMllling on deaner burninn iJn:euded gasoline and thtdr J;dtl:ic!!!.ah' ·.!rni8sior.8 will decreH~e by ij~>-iJ.S ~"'c",,\. Thua, without regulation, r,,,,,",~ •. hJIy ,';'_'6ds will emit 4(}-)00 ~Im\." lh~ parllwi"le er!l,!\.~d by Ihese 1l!1l-! ~Ild luler model year gllsolooe ill.";,,, tI. Alio, due 10 Ihe extremely low h:vcis (~r j.Huticuiuh,' ~miH3i()ns expected from fu! \HP hea vy -Jld)' 86501 me en~lne8, Eh'. d<JH' 001 plnll !o propo.~ u parliLu!diE cmi.,ion ~tanu8rd for these "'18in~8. Tuble J lisl. particulate ~tnl6S"'n levels i"om some heavy-dUly die;e!s cun'anlly being uscd.

Ji Cllrrent Irend. conlinu,- EPA PXPt.~/":I.b the uae of Jie&cl engtnl!S m nt.'i.n:y duty vchldes to tncrCHoe '~r"il'ulic"lI)" over the next 15 YUlirs. VVhde d:esel tH).I!(lnes currtwtly 'power "uollt olle-th"'d ui all new h .... vy·duly ... ehi~k; sold in the U.S" EPA exp,'cIS Ihi" perc"ntaliC 10 incretllJe 10 S?-6!1 p""cellt by 11/95. This move lowllfd more diesd. will mCI Clise nalionwlue purllclJ,lillot IImissions fr!,1II heuvy·J"ly d'u;uls '" dn estimuted 218,000-200.000


Federal Realster I Vol. 46, No.4 I Wf'dr1l!Rcluy, 'IInliftry 7, lQR1 I PrnpoR!!d Rul!!s 1911

",l'Irio: ""'. I'fI' ,..". Ily 11J1l~. IIrhlln IIn'lI" wl1uld hI! ,h. 01 ... 1 h ... ylly ,,{f,'cl .. d by Ih"se emlsllon •. Am!>l .. nl par'i<:II1i'11! lev .. I. from heavy-duly di(,.q,·Is "lone would I'8l1eh 2-7 mlcMgram' PDT cubic meIer {annual !t"nmelrlc mellnlln cllfetlllUch •• ChiclIgo, \'01 "'"selea. N..., York. and lJallHs. Somp.whallower ,-'. of Z-5 "III:rollrIlOls pI" cubic meIer {annual ~"{lmelrlc mellnl would oocur In amoller cili"R such as SI. Loul •• o.nvIIT. and Phoenix. Theae I .. vela would occur over larRe-scllle arelll within the.e cities. ,,"tiitional particulate levels of lHI ,"icrt'grom, per cubic meter (annual ~;·"no('tric meRnl would be .xpecled In 1,'cllli7.ed '''''a8 within 90 meterl of very hUlIy r(uHlwAY~.

r.ble 1


In,'., C.'ll'fT'lllai J:?(j8 0'9 ,q,., Cat.,..,;)..t08 If ...... 10J S1 n179 Cater.,..., J..401lr.-My , .. 02 1[l'6 Cum""", NTC-l50 . _. eo 1" 1j;t C~ NTC-JIY) "1lI9 Cam'" ~ _ ... I~li C~ N1CC-3S0 .. __ ._. 30 'QTQ (:umm.ns NYC· 290 58 1119 Cum"'" VT8·903·

"'" If ... _0. _. -,,--_. ~ No 2F ... 37

'4.'/t (lOA "V~l»l .. Iqr8 (']()A AV~71N·

No , F .... III No U .... 111

'~1t OOA 8V-1HA .!II! 11)19 OOA eV~82TA'Bo

No ,. .... 411 No 2 f\rttt. ........ , .... --.- M

H~7~ ll()A 6V-1l2tA 1OU-. SO 1'1:9 11K' OTJ--4t.68 "" .. 1!-J ry !HC OT -4&6 ...... ., .. _ ............ . 113 III 'q MAc" ('l "'jBte'13A ._~ ... _._ .. .511 l'lJlt) ~rt""- El~X·8re In

" ,I .. scrlpllon [If Ihe slandllrd being pn'I'IIsed fol1ow8 logelher with a d"scription of the lechnologlcal.

, t 2

• I t 2

I 2 2

2 , , , , 2 , • • ,

"11\ 'ronmrl'11I1 and economic Impacls of Ihi" 1'I:~lIllllion. Following thele topics lire "isr.\I"~ions or 1) Ihe alternallves .. ,,,min .. d hy EPA. 2) Ihe major area8 of Ii", cllrn'nl rederal Tesl Procedure Ihal ",,,,,hf he rhHnged by the proposed I"" Iin,I .. I!! I,,~I procedures. 3) Ihe IlIIPrnutil:e particulale menauremp.nl I .. chni'l"'·' ronsidered for the Fl'derlll '1',' ,I 1', ,,"('dllr ... I1nd 4) the malor ,J,fr", "nc'" het .... !! .. n the proposed lesl pre.n·dllrl' IInti thot conillined in EPA', \),.,,11 lkc,'nlmrnd .. ti-I'ractice of April 1'17f1

PI' '1'''''''/ Slaqr/o.'Yf.· Th" propo~ed I);nl,' I1hl" Mnndnrrl for heavy-duly tiil's,'1 !'llgin". I~ 0.25 gram pcr broke h'I"'I""",'r-hollr (g/BIlP/hr) {O.tl93 gram p"r 1lH'\\lIif>"I .. IS/Mill bf'glnnln!l with IIII' 1'1f\/l nol',f,'1 yeAr. Hpnvy-tiuty di",pl l'II).1iw'R muql nlrw continue to mf"f'f th(~

Ilpprnprllllfl WU"fUifa I'o.l""lon IttAnflnrrf. fo. hydl'llt:flrh"". fllC!. CArbo" monoxide (CO). nntl OXld!!! of nllTORp.n (NO') nnd .mok" RIH·ndllrda.

The proposAl doe8 not .. Fleet Ihp. currenl cerlificntlon or srlecllve enforcllmenl audit (SF.A) procesael. 1\ Joe •. howI!ver. modify Il'sl procedures 10 provide for parttculRltl measurement. AR manufaclurers of heny-dulY diesel. mllst cllrrelllly follow Ihesl procedures to demonalrKI" compliftflct! will! gascoul emission and smoke slRndards. the Rame will hold true for Ihl. perticiJl"le slandard. The ule of a full uReful·Ufe delerioration fRclor. the UBe of Il 10 percenl acceptable quality level for SEA Rntl the certification enltine .electlon crlt,,'ia wlll.1I apply 10 Ihi8 particulate slHndard 88 Ihey will fur Ihe Be. co. NO,. RnJ smoke slandard •. lIowelier. beCAuse 1M propoaed I".t procedure will provide bOlh particulllie nnd ga800u8 emi •• iull vRIIles lIimullanoouely. EPA dll". nol expecI Ihi" proposed pArticulale .Iandard 10 Incre.le Ihe number of engines requiring lestlng for eilher certificalion 01' S~;A.

Technology: The elenn Air Acl 8a aml'ndl!d in A"8u811977 requires heavy· duty diell4!l particulale emission control bAsed upon contrullechnology which the Adminislralor delermines wJlJ be 8 vailahle for Ihe model y"8r to which 8uc.h slandards apply. Due cunsideralion musl also be RiYcn 10 cosl. nolae. energy. and I8rety. The 0.25 g/BIIP-hr (0.093 8/MII 8tandard being proposed loday rulrills Ihese requirement ..

EPA hal. [" Ihe COUfse or developing this proposal. tested heavy·dulY diesel engines from eoch of the 5 mllior mAmlfaclurcra in order 10 determine Ihelr particulale ~mis8lon levela; Ihe Iranslenl lesl procI!duN! a8 d08cribed In Ihe "Dntft Recommcn,lr·d Prflcllce ror Measurement of Ga.eoul and Parllculate F.misslons fNlm Heavy-Duly Di"8el Rn81ne, Under TrAnal"nl Condition .... April 1970. wBlII.ed. Together. the engine8 produced by IhenD five manuraclu",", accollnt ror approximalely 97 percenl of the heavy­duly diesel engines aold in this counlry. The pflrth:lIlar engines lealed by EPA rep ..... enl the complele rRn~ or t'/Iglne sizr. and flppltcAtiona round In today'l ne!!! And account for roughly 70 percenl of U.S. RAI .. s. To dale. thia le8t progrflm i, approxlmalely 110 percent complele. EPA do~. nol ""Iieve thnl dell,ylng Ihls proposol !o ~lIow for the com pie lion or Ihis feslinll i. nl'cesRHry aln<:" 1) lesling h~, "lreBely \'epn compl"lp.d on 3 of Ihe 5 mlljor manllfllcIIlN"S' ,>ngines. 21 "iven the rcpre.rnlalivenes8 of Ih~ , ... Ied elll<m!!s of the olh .. r Z mnOlrfoc!urer. and th(' rnethodolollY us<!d 10 del"TTIIln .. thr I"chnoln/!ir .011 y rf'1I .ibl .. I'ngln",ollt

pllrt.rulutl' t"vlli (dlullllflnd .... I"wl. It i. ,,"Ii~oly thallh"lfI",,1 of thl' ""'I'OAotl w!"ndard would be .lltfllrh:HIIII~' .. fI"c:lpd by Ihe remlllnins rew enRln" •. lind 31 Ihe t"RI program will be compleled befor" promul8Rlion of Ihe finlll slandlOrd. If ehan""s to Ihe Ilandyrd lire warrAnled bnRed on Ihis n~w dota. Ih .. comm"nl pPriod will he reopened.

EPA bused Ihe level of Ihi. proP08ed .t"ndarO on:

1. An engine-out pnrtlculale pmi."ion Il'vel of 0.41 R/BHP-hr (0.153 /!/MJI;

2. A 60 percp.nl reduction In "ngine-ollt pHrliculale emiAitons frum Ihe applic&tlon of Irap-oxidizers:

3. Over Ihe full usrfullife. an inC.PHRe In pnrticulate eml.llons of up to 20 percenl due 10 e"lline Bnd Irap·oxidi7,'r d('terioration; and

4. A 24 percenl allowRnce ba."d un 12 pl'rcenl variahility in the pllrlil:ul<lle emissions of production r·"Rin .. , lind H

10 percent acceplHhle qllltlil~' Iomil fur .. Selp.cllve Enforcpment Audi!. lh"AI' fOllr poinls are disculsed below.

I. Elisine-Out Emis.ion Le",,1

The 0.41 S/OHP-hr enlllne~ut emission level represenls Ihe fl!vel of particulate emissions which EPA haR determined to be lechnologically feasible by 1986 withoul the Ilse or aftertrcalmenl deyices (i.e .. Ir .. p­oxidizers) and withoul la!Jng inlo consideration in-use deteriorlltinn or produclion variabllily. Thi3 Icn,1 reprelents the average or Ihe .scl or ensines made up of each manuraclurer's lowesl particulate emitting model Irst"d by EPA on No. Z dlelel fuel (ace Tahir. 1). Thla approach was chosen from among aeveral allemalivOli brcllusr II best satisfieR Ihe Cleon Air Ad requirements thilihe standard "f{,nrr.1 Ihe greaw.1 de81'ee of emission r .. ducllon achievable ... giving appropriale consldera lion 10 the CIl.t . Bnd 10 nolse. energy. Bnd silr"ly f"clo.... . .... .

EPA considered three other approaches in determh1\n!l'the lechnologicaUy achievable Ipvel or engine·out partlculale f!mi •• ion •. Th"y were: {ll the worel bHsclinf .. nRine (highest plrticuillte emi •• ion 1"",,11. (2) Ihe lowell particulate emission Il'vel among the lesl~ englnell. and (~) Ih .. high".1 single emlslion level amonR eneb mallUraClurer', blllt engln ....

The flrsl opllon would aO't Ihl' fenRlble level or englne-out parltl'Ulrtle pmilsions al 0.79 II/BHP-hr (0.29 s/MII (S .. !' TII"lp 11· Using Ihe en~ine-oul porlkllllll" emissions of Ihe "worN!" ba".,hn" .. n!linf' or ,,·hlele R8 Ih .. stllrtin!! point ror M,tting th .. parliculHle .","dnrd moy bl! IOn appropriale approach whrTl \'I'hide pnrnmr·terR, such ft1 ,.nJCin~ ~il.P or


""hid" wdllht ... ru It sillnific*nt fuclor In Ihe relullin"I""el of emissions. Thi. "pproa/:h was followed to lomll Ilxtenl in 81lllilllllhe partlculale emi .. ion stundard. fur light·duly vehicles and light-duly trucks (45 FR 14496. March 5. 1980). Particulate eminion. from light­,July vehid"s lind Iruel(, are direclly "f(I!cllld hy such puramelera a. vehicle weighl Hnd engine liz.e. EPA found that Ihll diffllrences in particulale emis.iona lit baseline lighl-duly vehlclea were nol so Inuch Ih .. reault of diffarenl dealsn feHlureB leHdlng 10 lower parlicuhlle It,vds IhHI could be readily incorporated inlo other vehicles. bul.ralher Iha fact thul g'merlllly hellvler vehiclel lend 10 "mllgrellier levcla of particulate '·milsiona. In order 10 avoid lei ling BtandurdB Ibuled on. the level uchiovable by the "bell" or emallesl vehicles) Ih .. 1 would have prevented .11 "lIht-duty diesels from meelill8 tba siandards excepl subcompacll and timall pick·ups wllh email ell8inea. Ihe Agency based the standards on Iha I"wesl particulate levelachievllble by Ihe "worsl" (or !tugeel) diesel·powered baseline vehicle ..

Huwl!ver. using the engine·oul particulate emissions of Ihe "woral" h~ny·duly engine Ba !he .Iarting polnl f"r 8etling the heavy-duly pllrtlculate siandard would be inappropriate b"cilusu EPA could find no lignifiClint correlation bel ween emisaions and luch parallwters as engine size or type. In fact. ~:l'A fllUlli1 Ii bHseline engine wilh much lower emissions Ih .. t wall "",nparable in tenns of horae power une! in-usc UPl'licution to !he baseline engine which hud Ihe highest parliculale "missiuns. The result, of EPA', ill\,,,,,til!ation BUllllest Ihllt .. t leBOt 10 (mllW l~xtenl fwme engine dcsit(11 fcatur"s I .. alling to lower p .. rliculdte emi.sillns Ifrum the worst b8selinu ,'ngillt!) ure uv"ilable.

Gi"cll Ihese findings. EPA could nol d,'lerminl! Ihul 0.70 g/BIIP·hr r"pmsclll"d the "greatest reduction IIdlil'vllhie , .. " und Oplion 1 hod to be n·j"etcd. To do 0lherwl8e would huve illullfed Ih.· r!!duction potential already tI"lIIunslruled by every other cngina 1.'stl'llllI .Iute.

Ol'lion Z wuuld require aU engines to 1O',II:h .1Il "ngmc-out porticulale level tI.'II11I11"II·illlld by Ihe boat of the buscline . "1111"11" 11'.1,,01. This lev .. 1 is 0.31 g/BIIP­hI' 111.12 M/MII: ,der to Table 1. Implicit ill th ... chillu' uf this optilln would be the j",IHnll"lIlh .. t I I) there ore no engine ""011111 rnatures thot hllve un dfuet lin I'arti,;ulolll, !!missi"n. whIch connot be luudlly illcorporuh,d on u\llliher heavy· Iluly dlPscI •. n'Rardl".8 of their .I~e. "l'l'h"'lliulI Itru,,\' or bus). or


mOllufacturer. and III th" feature" .' ""Id produce exactly the Hllme low particulate emi .. lon level "" oil ':i'H'''''' KPA hos examined Ih6 relutiorlship between particulate emi •• iollti and engine size or appllciltlon and hil~ found no lisniftcant correlation. Diffui'cn"es wllre found In !he emissions or ,,")/'nefi produced by various lIlUnUfllcturern, but no evidence waa found 10 mdlcai .. tnilt' the deaign. used 10 obtuin low emilaiona on aome engineB were IIul 8Vallllble to all monuf .. cturers. However. EPA could nol Imd tivtd"",;e thot Ihese deaign fealures would t"lVe exactly !he Barna affecl on every manuracturer's enlllO •• , \lnle8s e8en manufacturer would prot'ucft '~n e""r.( replic:e of the luwe~t-~miltmli lJu~"line Bll8ina. For example. the pdm'il"i '.:Q'CM'

of tbe low particulate "mi, .• iutls produced by th" be.t h".di"" engins mAy have been on improvHG luel Injocllon lechnlque which 18 ISv8ilHbic 10 all mllnufllclorera. f!owevPf, bee"06(! Ihe fuel injection Iyalem i8 un Integral part of !he engille end it. rr!k;em:y ~ould depend on ~any other enginll parametere (whOle eflec.t Oil pHclio,IIl(e emi.slons lire nol a\ this limn fullv underetood). th" only way to ,Iel~rm,na Ihe effecl or a modiflcoUon on e given ensine would b .. to lest il on lhal slIglne While EPA could hnve Ih"orr.tic&liy

r.crformed enough \esls 0., " 8uf:kiently "I'III! Ilimplo of engines 111 an altemrl k.

demonltrate !hal all tlll~lne8 could achieve Ihe eml8llona Il! the best balcline ell8ine. Ihe cObl of weh f.I

progrom wuuld be enornwu' dnJ Ih" implement lilian of thle purlieul"".' ah,ndard would have be"n r",elpon"J h, ollclI8t 1-2 year •. This d"l"y v")llh~ bn unacceplable /iiven the thilfHl.de III ',hn Clenn Air Act. Given Ih,! uvtlil.bl" du!a. o 81andllrd based on Ollllon ;> migH well r~qulre the mulor rpdeslgn uf \"rtulllI\ Itll engine familicN for cnrnpli"nce I" b" It8sured. EPA hu. 110 bu.i~ (Uf

supporting Ihe !:o>nlenlioll thul sud, 0

mHIClr rode8111f\ effurt would ""." h .. plIssible.

Thu •. if EPA chose Ihl" IilJpru"ch, it would he po.sible Ih .. 1 a large number of enllines mlllht nOI be uhle 10 mce! Ihe parliculate stundu:d in 1900. In !hi. euse. the IIffllcted IIIdnufuGlarers could only intruducu Ih"." en~lne~ ill!v c"mmerce if IhllY dccled tu ih'), II nonconfurmullce pI!nully 1111 cadI ensine. While E.I'A beJ,"V(,a IIwt nonconformance penult",. huve" dtlfinite rol" tu plu~ in Ihe IC8uldtilin 0>( helJvy-duty yuhide •. we du nol bdicvu th.t Cun8rc8s mlt!lld"d for nonconformonce pI!lIullic. to he pU1l1 in ordur for most ensinee 10 btl 8010 Yl'\ this situation cuulJ arise undnr Optiun ~.

(.illt!:."l ;i VJ.'.,,:hJ U38 as the a'Brtin8 linint for ,elling Ihe ihmdllrd the highest t,!: )-!~ ~~nl<n,"'~~u~ ~",f~iGuI8te level from L:e s," ,1 '''\),',IICt <r;dcie up of cach of the L,,:~) ",\1:-;')( '~;t' :" .. f!.e(,( .. H~r·e IO·.I'./e~,t

~'mjtij~~< . ..::.\.~~ilH:. 1n '}t~H~r words. ()phon J I.'J:.:,,,,i',i.; ):; _ l::i. I ! /.!lJ..Hiuc-vJl pdrliculate I"vel [\, ",'; v./-J'V'·nr (1I.22 81M!) (aell Ttib!t.; :;::' ,1 _<,1j:lj...,(iOZ, of T~b'(> 1 ~hOW!l trH.:" .. , ruE :~'lfu-Ihird& of lha {-IlgHH;~ :~-,~.~~(-':' rli,,; alrc .. :l{i~- emitiirtg Jcss IH1fU'''11~4L-I ~L,,:,lZ'O ;hjsle\'el, Thus. this {l •. ,d.\)r; 1·,·:I".'-".,·:~ ~~;'1' f>jf.me probielY' IJS (i~ir;.~~~~n,.:;j ,t:~;,~~1e \<'\Iith OpHon !: it docs lHA ~l\ ~~ P:df.H'l~if~\'~: Cl.101::!i.derlHj·J;) to the LonL.o' !;.Jch;":..;l..;C ,'!;'i?ady I:' ,'.'_'" . i(!!:~,~ " .. ~ ~ ~h~·i'i:iid n:itjuri!r ''i :;? ~;'i;1~r..:;: t?(L~': 9rc<cl,..~eci ~Oddy : 1:),:;., -,oi)':.'!.: :.~,f::J ;:ii_.ti:uiJ m:sht dfJreUI' 10

~'-':', .. ' ~_,~} f~'0~~"- ~,: i,f 0p"J:l;:', .but of '-U~\.~p~",; )1 If;' 1"i::;:~-5 mllni~fHC'!.lf('r to­rnanuLaGtun.:r ti.arcr'e~cc,. it rai8es the jHl.!~H! y;;-( :;,;1'1:-, . . J;,':nG!8ted with Opljon 1 cnia EFA 'Iu,i '." :ejc<..i It (WOI further

The upt"),, ,_bo"en by EPA, which ~':'.'_h~) ,;'" f~!,tUHl.,r :e\id of en8ir:.e-out Ptd"dCUJHt.g ~Hpit;lOh)n9 c-n tho average of ,he ~mi6"itm ievcl6 of the lowe"t­emi,lin8 ~''8U\t: tWin each of th.l five ~,;,,,~k!' :'riB.au.;acturt!ru, addresses the j" ';fh C''' r'·".an:ed by each of the '"~'''\''''' \h .. "" '.1pt'OIIiI find besl fulfills :IHi t:~E~~~rU8~11...)tJH~ m,undute to develop a >""l,c,,". In ;;!aaliard which reflects "the Jt'0~\tM;~ ;~cgHJe 01 emission reduction ucbi,'va!wd, .. giving appropriate (;.'lW' i';~;i~io .. ~ \\) ~he cost" . und to nui~:c, e-l"d~~'tLl/. '.hld fHtfefy i-acforH ... " It ta~d~.:'- :Hc. C('n::;lderal:~an. for example. :!l" , 'I.H~',' nr ~'(:\'!IHI: manufacturers 10

budd cn~~He8 wha:h emit relatively low .1"",,1" \Ji "",lielllale (oee Table II Failun. L .w,!\'e edtlQuate considerullOIl ~o il~" h .lC{ omplwhmeuhl (iAS is the CtU;C

",1.:- !j.).' \' ~ .~~-1,-1 3) would ue (;untrnfY ~l; tho' "I\;j>,.'fj »lullJd rt:quirenwufs of the C\l.'::n ~\:: Ad. Since 4 uf the 5 l!1~qor :nanufuC1Ufertl hove HirCddy d~!H'Oh8I.i'Ht2Li \helr abllity to build cll;jlrWr, below ILl iI.41 s/Blli'-hr clIHi,,,,· (\\L{ I,,:vd phf!i!P Hnnh"l.e& repreHent IIP>"'·l;"m,,,cly ~O percent of ooml1stic pal",,:. the co.1 or feaslbilily of ~--"~knui!'s. \hese techniques (0 other fngn~e fnmHieh ~;\lf.)Uld not be I.H'ohiuitivu und i/'w wtcie::;pcc,:d Uti-It of nOll·

uln(urrf'j.~w::t: •. }\:nalliVti Lhould nul lw {H~, 'eS(~vl v -, .. ·urd~"'u Hu.: d\:eoddn

pn:fu'I'l€t'-l by Optiun 2. The fiflh iThtn,,;,_,c(t,ner -eCiu4dd d.lbU bi: Hblt! 10 comply ~lnc~ j] lih/; dcmon1ilrillt'J i.Jbilit,Y j(J cutid h-...... ·NO .. ·tHuiUlllM tmgjlH's should 11.::7-:11011 Itll j~ulibib'e rcliul1ct! UI1

,"\10" \,;onih,,} !~!i...hnjquc!j which iJlt;n~iJKl.' PH!'tH~uiahoj ':OiI~''''H)ntl irde\lc:1nl JiSi.:UIJ51OIlli uJ lhjb poiut can be found in "ther P'" II or, " uf Inia dUGIIII">lltj illld I~)


Federal RealI"" I Vol. 46. No. " I WedneadllY. JAnuary 7. 1981 I Proposed Rulr.~ 1913

Ihe IOlldtlmo Bvanablll .hould btl I"melltll 10 ollow II In IncorporAte ,lnRIMn " .. ,111111' of olhar InlnlllllntllrPti' englno. which have .. I",pdy bflln dilmonilrailld 10 lower parlleulale I!mlllion •.

By 8VOr8111118 the parliGUilite emls81nn levell of Ihe be.longlnes. the chosen opproAch recognb:c8 ballc manufacturer-lo-manufActurer design differences And reneele a mont representative range of perfonnance (!llpahlll1les than other opllon. based on Ihe performance of 11118111 engines. The level of 0.41 g,BHP-hr (O.tllii/MJ) i. Ihu8 II .tringenl level 10 Ille a. a slarting polnl. requiring Ihe higher-polluting I>nginet 10 Incorporate. to a greal degree. Ihe d,!monstrated leclmoloaY of the besl engine. of olliven manufaclurer. Yel al Ihe 611 me lime \I takel into con.lderellon II,... uncetlalntlel Ihat would be Involved in forclnll a mRnufaclurer 10 adopl almu81 complett'ly Ihll de.lgn. employed hy ill r.ompelitors.

While it is po •• lble Ihal a more slringenl englne-oull.vel could be Iduntified Ihot weuld be lec;hnoloBlcalJy feAalble. EPA doe. nol have lumclanl dala atlhls point 10 tupport the utitizatlon of auch a level. Further l1udy would be required before Ii more slrlngent level could be Idllntllled and adequalely lupported. Thll would only serve 10 furlher delay implem.ntatlon 01 the 8landard. Therefore. EPA bellev" that It Is more appropriate 10 ulilin Ihe p.nlline-out leval thall, .upporled by the available data. EPA will continueitl research In this aroa end If It become. evidenl that B more .trtnaent engIne-out level II lachnologlcally feallible. EPA will commance a rulemeldrlfl te ravlle the Blandai'd aceordlnsl,..

Up unllllhis point. '" have restricted the dilcusslon of engine-related l"chnolOfl)' 10 thai already preaenl on exlsli"lll!fI8Inel and avoided dlacu18I"11 additlonalanglne modillcltlon. which could also reduce partlculate eml •• lon .. One proml.lnglons-tenn technique In I~i. loller cattl1JOry it to modify the I)lI8lne to bum melhanol. Methllnolls an ollractive altemativ8 fuel,lnce it (1) clln he readily prodllClbl1l from plentiful domestic 10Urces IUch al COllI and hiomsti3. (2) ca.n poAIIlbly be produced by mON! Ihl'nnaUy emclonlllnd . Bvironmentally IIcceptable proce.... . Ihan procene8 which yield 8ynthetlc crude •. (3) can be produced wllh readily avaUablll. commercially proven ~ lecruwlo8Y which appelll'll 10 require lesl capllallnveetmenl than syncrude production pl'OCl!8aee. end (4) appears 10 have the polentlal (or vel')' low partlculale. hydrocarbon and llioloslcaJly active o'1lanlc IImI .. lone.

1'h" potenllfll ror rt'ducI.d rartlcula'l Ilmlulonl mnk". norlh"no .. proml'ln .. "Ih'rn"tlv" (,"'\ with NlI"rc) 10 Ihl. prupoI.,d pRrlloulnh, .Iflndard. Whll" the propos('d parllculale Ilendard I, achievable wlthoul uelll8·methanol. it. availobility lind ule would .lmpUfy Ihe lusk Immensely.

A1ao of Inlerell Ie mothllnol'alnherenl ablllly 10 lower O)llde8 of nllf08t!n (NO.) emitStonl from dletel ell8lnel. compared 10 lholo eame enginea operatlna on die eel Fuel. Thla result II primarily due to Ihe lower combu.tlon lemperature of methanol-fueled dlelel engines. Since Congre," ha, required Ihal NO. aml .. lonl be l\snincanlly rf'duced from thle class of vehlclel (Ihll loplc II dl.cUlsed below). ule of methanol could aid in achieving Ihi. lIoal.

In order 10 evaluate Ihe emll8lon.­ralatfld characleriatiCi of dielel oll8lne. operutlJll on melhllnol. EPA II condllclill8 lesll on a dual-fueled Volvo heavy-duty diesel erlfllne. Comblllllon II Inllialed In Ihll engine when a relatively 1m aU quanllty of dlelel fuel II Inlecled inlo the healed combultlon chamber: the Iecond fuel. melhanolln Ihil ca ... II then Injectod lind ignited by Ihe buml", dlftel luel and lorve. a. the prima..,. lourea of enertIY for Ihe engine. Completely lepllralo Inlectlon .,..Iem. accommodate Ihe dlfferenl fuelt In Ihlt IYllem. Tell. of olher methanol·blll,,"n, 11lI8lnlll are planned for Ihe future.

Since melhanol ha. Ibe potential 10 help Ielten the naUon'a dependance on forellll' 01\ a. well al provide I meene 01 al\aln1n8 cleaner air. EPA IQ¥ilea commenla on II. UII8 In dl ... 1 .....

In addition to the uae or methuol fuel. there are olher technique, avallabla which aleo can NCluce ........ oul particulate aml.alona from hel.,. duty dle'ael ell8lne8- However. 101M 01 the .. technique. allo tand to IDc:raaM eml'llona of nitropen 6xlde1 (NO.). I Thli could be problem. .Inee In edditlon to mandlti118 partlcullll.OOI1tro1 Con&rae'IIIIO mandaled that NO eml .. 1oGI from heavy-dut, d1;;I. be reduCed IlanIOcenll, In IIJ115. Specifically. NO. emlliiOllf are to be reduced by 76 pereant from uncontrolled gaeollne efl8lne lavala. which tnuIaIatae \0 aboul a 1.7 g/BHP-hr .Iandard. Th. InfonnB lion available to EPA 10 dale hll' not lhoWn thle NO. lavelto be fellalble for dlellll, excepl by u.lns IIKlMlqu.. ,uch.a. retArded tlml"" whIch incnIaH fuel coneumpllon and Increa .. particulale eml8sions markedly. Thu •• dieBel. will need every bit of NO. conlrol thol can be found 10 reach thll

• Sfo« O.plt'r IV of tho RI.'1fuiRtory An.I,.. .. rOf det.illi.

h'YII. PRrtlculate control. th"1 "ctulllly Inr.r".I" NO, aml •• lnn. wllllld nnly AllllrpYA11 Ihlt .I\".lion. Thu •. F.PA will nlll 100ctor Ihl! particulate rl'lluo:llon. evoilabll from IheRIl IlIchnlqllu. Into II. dUlermlnallon of the IIrelilell 1'8rti(;IIIHI" reduction achievable from h"<lvy-duly dielela.

However. Ihure are som~ tpchniqllr.. available which can reduce enRine-out parliculalll emilllonl with Inereasin" NO. emll8lonl. Data availnble 10 f'J>A hal .hown Ihal modlficnt\ons made 10 a Cummln. engIne and different modlflcatlonl made to a Calerpillar enslne bolh reBulled in lower pilfticulatoo emll8lona and lower NO. aml.llinna. In addilion. Ihe laller engine wn8 alrlelldy II relatively low pertlculate emiller. The.e relulte. plu8 the ,ooneral fllel thai partlculale emllllon8 have },pl In he directly conlronlld and conseqll',"Uy. have yallo be faclored Inlo ",,,.llIn dedalon. ,upport Ihe concluslun Ihllt englne-ollt parllculate amillionl could be reduced below Ihe 0.41 stBIII'-hr level withoul Increaelng NO. emll8lons.

Berore appl)1r1f1lhese reducllonl 10 the 0.41 a/BHP-hr partlculall levII. howev .... Ihe Congrelilonil mandale 10 reduCli NO. emillion. mUIt "e conalderad 011Cll again. Thle Inandale II very .peclnc, requlrll18 felluclione 10. lpec\JIed level The Conjlnlaional mandate to ~ particulate .. millions I. _whal .... apaclfic. calling only for lhe ..... teet reduction achievable without .peclr,tna • Illvei. II appeers Ihalll claM .. are to mftt or even Ipproac:h. ~ In .. of 1.7 a/BHP-hr. IIOme 1ncr.Ja In parllcw.te emI8.ion. may have 10 ""alt. If the partlculale reductloae _tIoned above were len 10 on .. llnorea ... In partlculale· emla.lonl due 10 NO, coatrol .. a lower NO. level could be.adJlnad. Thl. wflllid IncreaAn the Hk.U'IIeOcI or achieving Ihe em..,. •• laDaJ lIMQilale to reduce NO. tlnl .. IOII8. A8 will be dMeribed In Ihe next lBGIton. ........ canl reducllone In parllcul8'" _1.,lon8 Ire available from

. Iner1fltltmanl technlquea. luch 88 trap-ol(ldl ..... Therefore given /1,thollhere are ott. tac:hnoIotte. which provid" Ilsniflcdt partlc:ulllte reduction and (2) the .pec:1f1a11)' of Ih. NO. mandale. EPA ha. decided thai the two Coop •• elonal mandala would beat be mIl by ~ the tIhfIne-oal particulale NCluclioM acbJeveble below 0.41gl BHP-hr to onsel the errecll of NO. control. In thll wily. lIle degree or NO. reduction available III dll!lels will be enhanced. while .tgntncsnt particulale reduction. can 11111 oc(;ur viII uae of Imp­oxidize .... Thul. 0.41 a/RUp·hr will be u8ed aa the lowesl 8nlllno-olll


1814 Federal Register I Vol. 46, No.4 I WednlJ8Jay. January 7. 1981 I Propoued Rules

purliculule ;evelat:hievable by all hellvy-duty di,:sds.

WhIle Ihi. dedsion enhuncCl the f""8ibilily of Ihe t.7g/BIfP·hr NO. slllnd"rd It do". not Insure thai lIet incn,u.c! in plll1iculate emiaalons will still not occur due to the Implementatloll of NO. controla. Any' luch Increases could make the 0.41 g/BHP·hr engine-out purlicullite levellnfellalble. To pleYCllt this from occurring. EPA. In Itl p.op08als of Ihe NO. al.ndard will restrict the required NO. reduction '­diesels 10 thai achievable witJa a o.f1 81 UlIP-hr engine-oul particulatelllhiulon le\·cI. In Ihi. way. tha leeaibility 01 the NO. Ilandard can be anhllnc:ad wllhout affecling the reasibillly 01 the particulate standard beins propoaed lOday.

2. Trap.OxidiT':TS .

In addition 10 re'duclna purticulate emissions formed in the combWition proceSS. addillonal reduclioM are uvuiluble from Jhe application of after­Ireillment devices. parUcuhuly trup­oxidizers. A trap-oxidizer beslcally consials of Ii hlah-Iemperalure trapping muleriul housed In a alalnles8 ateel 81,,& Placed In lhe exhaWlI. it collecl. purlkul"tc and periodically (or continually) tncineratee (oxidizes) It. The Incincrulion rroce .. ululllly requires lin initia minimum exhault lemperatureof 4~· C. Because .ueb temperulurea may not normally occur in heavy-dUlY diesel eMauel, eMaul Icmpertlturel may noed to be artlftcally rai6ed to the nece~8ary lavello permit regeneration.li.e .. Incineration).

The particulate collectioo effICiencies uf muny trup materials have already becn demonslraled. MWlY nlaterial .. such lIS alumina coaled wire me»h ano metul wool. "ave ,hOWD efficienciea of up 10 US percent. Blishlly modified cClLlmic monolithic aubaLratel (similar to thOle uled in aulomotlve caLaly.ls) have shown wllection efficiencies of up to &to pI·rccnl. In delerminina tha tcchnolug",ally achievable level of partio;ulllie emissions with uflllrtre<llmcni. EPA hll. uDed II 110 p",ulIll inilial"",Ueclion efficilmcy.· Th'lI i" Ihe 8ame effiCiency which EPA us"d 10 dctermine Ihe technologically f.·".ible level for Ihe Iight-dul)l diosel 1"lIlicu! .• I" 8lillul"rd 1451'R 14496).

Scverullrap-oxidizer rellcnerulion Uppl'O""he8 hlwe been inve.ligaled. The. simple. I ""Iulion would be to o;ulllillllUU.ly (or ncar-continuously) o,id'Zl! Ihe parliculale. In which calle Ihl! Irllp·(),,,li~cr would (unctioQ much It~" u ",,· •• ,1 ""I .. lylic con verier. The I'rubl"m w.th diesl!! cunverlers is 'iDlpl)l illlll~inillinlll!lll", hillh.lemp,mllure

conditions that ensuru continual oxidution. Much erfort I. beina expended on producing convarlera which would fonction on dlnele. end duH/8M hllVe bOtln Ioiliad by EPA that lire cloaa 10 what it naedud. All aitarnativi Ie 10 oxidize the particulale only oceoslonolly. when enouah OI1Ianic mllterial bae bean collecled by tho trap 10 aid the phlC:8. and when the exh_t tempera lura Ie h.\ah enooP 10 ID.itlala oxldllUon. Many approachee have been .u8888IOO tolollil" !be oxidation procau. The _at pnxawlIf ia th, addition or aD ialel air Ibrollie. wbk:b would limit th, iIIlu. air Into tile combu811oa claelOben ud ...... the temperature of th. wauet. Tbe IbrotU1aa would be periodic. and could be act ... led by a comblnetlOli of the odometer relldlng Hnd rack poailion. or might bave 10 be linked 10 a controller unit coordInetilll .everal parameters .ueh as rack position. bac;lt-pre •• ure. exhaust g81 recirculation. ele-In I Iludy using llaht-duly diesel .. GM reported that over a 1001)-mlle aeriea of load-up lind reaeneraUon tesls. uUUzlna Ihroltllns to Inltlale oxidation. the trep collection emcleDIlY all. ually Increa.ed sllgb tly. There appear 10 be no tec:llDk:al problema with utiUdna throllllDa to Initiate oxidation. and there Ia evlc:luu that throttling lIlBy pouibly red8C8 engine-out partlcuJate and NO. eml8010na a\ishtly.

Collection efflcilmclaa and regeneration technique. have prosreued to the point wh_ the moat criticul iS8ue ia whether th, effIcieaq and rOBe_allan mochanl8lll c:M be maintained over Ihe u.eM uta of tile vehicle. At thl. lime. EPA hal OIIly limited trap-oxidizer durability dala. at research.,n havD been ",Iuclanllo fund durability le.ting unlil olher /IIore besic question. lueh al bum-off control were lolved. The problema of durablltty .re problems which lend Ihemeelyee 10 engineerlns aoluliona: no major new technology hi required. Under controlled condillon8. exlatlng Irapa have elready been .hown to relaln Ihelr trllpping cupubllity over mBny bUMI-off cycle •• The Ifupplns medill ano cll8lne control, already appear to exisl for a full useful life trap. The mlljor problem remalnlll8 18 one of chllrllcterlzlng the In-u8e operllllng condlllon. of the enSine. 10 Ihllll1!gencratioll may be controlled to ulwoy. Insure Ihol Ihe bum-off h,mperlilure Iloys below thot which could dllmusu the trup. As thlB i. primurily B muller of optimizinlilhe trap position in the exhaust und the 10SIc used by Ihe burn-ofr control duvlce. we IIrc conlid"nl Ihll' Ihe durubllily

questionl will be resolved in the neur fulure.

Ona allpact or heavy-dUly d!ceol operliion which miaht appear 10 cauae a durabIlity problem Ie • ~ uaa(ullife (in terms of miles) relative to lighl.duly diesela.lndeed. Ihe averaae uaefullife of a heavy-duty die..,l ia currently t75.000 miles. while that of a llaht-duty diesel is only 100.000 mile •• In IormI of years, howev!!r. the aver. heavy-dUly dle~el I. u8ed only nine ytW'l, aa oppoaed to leD )lean for lI8bt-dlily diuels. Thll providee aome indication or the diUereDce ill the type, of driving ebarac\erlaUc of the two typos of vehicle .. tte.vy-duly die ... ls may accumulate Iaqe amounta of mileage. but thlY aIao do it In a aborl period of tilJUl UDder relatively .teady conditions. nua type of drIvIDg abouId be much les8 dam~ to • trap than !be aborter trip driving of a lIabl·duty vehicle. where the telllplllature traNianla. wbleb can ItructureUy .tra .. the trap. abould be much peater. ThUl. the uaefullivea in lenn. of lime. ralker than mUeaae. .hould be the "altar lnd1c:ator of durabllity requlrementa of the lrap. As heavy-duty die ... l 81111inea capture more or the Jiabtar truck markel now domlDated by c!-e enainea. their operation wUl to approecb that of lighl-dut)' vehicle. in atleul 80me eapecta. However. EPA expecta the o.erul life of thua former pBoline­rueled vebIc:Ia, to remeIn the same a(ler dieJaillatioD .1 before. Thla uuerullife Is only 111,000 aailea. wbleb Ia very close 10 that Of Ught-ihaty diaaela. ThUs. EPA expecta thaI beavy-ihaty diuel. will experience 110 ~ater trap durability problemlthllll Jl&bt-duty dieaele.

EPA recoanIZes thaltrap-oxidizer8 llI'e not currentq .vallable 10 permit compllanca witll the proposed 1986 heavy-duty dlualalaDdard. bUl given auIDcleDl aoocI r.lth effort by the mllnwactwwa. eo perlleDt arnclent trap­oxidlura .houJd be available In lime 10 be lru:orpotalad OD the 11180 model yellr nllel. A. di8CU1aed above, the basic concept of the trap-oll.idlzer ia well underatoocL The Improvemanle thai ure neceslary .... enalneariDB problem •• luch 81 trap plaC8111111l1 and the optimization of tbe raaenerallon conll'Ol. The solulion to thaaa problelDJll. more a function of the ruourcea alIoceled to Ihll problBIIl than atly eeleDlllie or Iccbnlcal bre.kliullugh. which would be Ihe caSB If IlIl entirely new trapping media were required.

The recenlly prlNDUlglllUQ lighl-duly diesel particulate tlandal'd, (.5I"R 14496) call fOl' a tlllllilevel of conl..,1 in 1985 bil8ed on trap-l)lI.idiaur IIl~hnolollY. Information pined frQIIIllIlI ,tudy of


, ............. I Vol. 48. No ... I WedneedHY. ,anuary 7. 1981 I Proposed Rulc~ 1915

trap-Ollidlae ... on lI,ht-duly dleHI. to dllte hall centered on arelll IUch •• I) development of. durable. emclent trltpplns maleriaL IJ unclenlandlna the bum-oCC proC8R" and 3, development or enRine controllechnlqun to enlure proper burn-off. Know..". Balned In theH areea should be npeclally applicable to heavy-duty die ..... However. heavy-duty dleHII can on en operata under dlff .... nt condition. than their IIsht·duty counterp.rt •• Por example. they are at tim .. len to Idle for poriodl of several hours (due to Inherent cold-.tart difficulHei and to p ... vent Itarter wear). Thl. operatllllJ characteriatlc II Important to trap­oxidizer regeneraUon.mce exhau.t temper.lure. a ... very dooI.tldle: hlah exhau.ttemper.tu ........ naaded to Incinerate collected p.rtlculale. Thul. meana mUI' be devtaed to aUow for trRp-oxldiaer regeneration while eJ18lnel are In this mode. While lhil problem and olhe ... do not appear \0 be Insurmountable Ihey do Indicate thaI loma addltlon.1 de.lan effort will be n"cellary to Incorporale trap-ollidize ... onlo heavy-duty dlelel •. To C.cllilala the oppllca\lon .nd optlmb.tlon of thele device. onto he.vy-duty diesel •• un addltion.1 year II bel .. provided In thle proposal beyond th. IIl85 d.te of trap-oxidizer IntroduclJoD for I .... t-duty diesell.

AI menll.oned •• rller. 1_1 •• 110 the ye.r th.1 the Corthcomlns NO. propo8ol will apply Cor theee lame elJ8inn. Many enslne deelllJl .nd operational featurel of heavy-duty dleeel. alTecl both the •• pollutants (see the Regulatory AnalYAls for further detaill).M mentioned enrller. lome can caUN clecreeltld eml8slons oC one pollutant wblle cauli", emission levell of the other to Inc ..... e. Ae manufaclurers wtll haw to d.'1an their engines for partlculale oontrol while conliderlns Ihe \mpeal on NO. rmisslons (and vice v_I It would be most reasonable 10 have the two standerd. apply In tha aame year. ellowl", de8111Jlto occur In ,. ... lIal. Thus. 19116 uppoa,. to be a .... _ble date to implemenlthe 0.25 sfBHP-hr particulate standard In IIpt of the dellllJl and e",lneerins effort. necallary and because of the cloae ... latlonlhlp between particulate and NO. emla.lonl.

Left to the marketplace. 1111 extremely unlikely that sufficient p ..... ure would be broughl to bear on the Indullry to all8re8sively puraue trap-oxldlzer development. Experience ha •• hown the greatest emission control development work to heve taken place when direct THllulalory incentives were In place. Sincr. nnal trap-oxidizer dealllJl' are nol now available to sUCC8ufully comply

with the propo8ed 1986 .tandard. to the extent that Ihe .tandard motivate. the Industry ,to a8llresslvely pursue research and development II II a "technolollY' foreins" .tandard. The term "lechnollllJY-forclns" ohen Implies Ihal the loqht-.ner technolollY II completely unknown or unCoreaeeable. but such I. not the cale hl!re. The bnllc concept of the trap-oxidizer II very well unde ... tood •• nd ••• "'plalned ebove. milch development hRS .I .... dy occurred. Thul. thl. rulltm.klnsll technololJ)' forclns only In the respect that It will encoura8e a ft'aslble conlrol ,tralelY that ml,ht olherwise be IlIJl0red.

3. o.terlom/ioll of E",lne ond TMp­o.~idiKtl,.

Dala Indica tins Ihe desree oC deterioration of heavy-duty dielel engine .. with re8ard to particulate emil.lon. over their usefuilivel are not .vall.ble .Inee I) partlcul.te emlilion. from heavy-duty dleeel, have not been rellulaled before IIDd 2) an adequale te.1 procedure hili only recently become avellable: manufacturera will be required to certify uII", th. u.nllent tnt procedu ... beglnnlnR with tha 1985 model y.ar. Uowever. EPA la.t, of In­uee lillht-iluty dlelell havl", .ccumulated an IvereJ18 48.000 mllel (77.250 kllometen) Indlcat. thl' liltle If any Ineteaae In engtne-out particuille emi .. lon. occu .... Wilh Ih •• t.blllty of heavy-duly dlelel emliliona of other pollutanll. the ula of 11m liar fu.1 IYlteml •• nd tha Ilmllarity of the . seneral emlsslonl stability of I""t- and heavy-duly dtesele. II II ..... OIIlIbl. 10

project lhatlhe enslne-out pertlculate eml •• lona of heavy-duty dlesell will deteriorale very little. He.vy-duty dlelel. were not Included In Ihl. In-uee .urvey Ilnce 1) no Illro-mil. cer1lncation data .... avanable beeaule heavy-duty dlBeel par1lculate II not currently l'II8ulated .nd 2) the only available lelt Itle hal been occupied with the b.Hllnlt emlillon. proaram.

Informa tlon on t he deterioration of trap-oxldlzer efficiency II liven more scarce. al none .re currently commercially av.nable and du ... billty tealR of available prototype, hava been waitlns unlilafter collection and bum­off technique. were perfecled. EPA therefore 80liclts comments In the a ... as oC afttieipaled enslne and particularly trap-oxidizer delerlorntion as they relate to particulate emissions. For the purposes of Ihis proposed rulemaklng • EPA ha. estimated Ihol the combined en!!ine and trnp-oxidi7.er delerioratlon will he no more Ihnn 20 percenl.

f, Selective Ellforr;em(,IIt AlJiII/IIIIl /1/1//

Production-Lille Variabil/IJ'

In addJtion to complying with EPA', certification prUC.,88 for new enRlnel. heAvy-duty diesel manufAc"""rs are .1.0 lublecl 10 a Selective F.nrorc: .. m~nl Audit (SEA) of their production '·"lIin,· •. the fourth poinl mentioned ahove. A~ ,. the case for olher resulal .. d p"II"Ia"I •. atle8lt9O percent of a mon"f.,d",,·" productton "flAlm" mUll me,· til ... pMpoeed partlculale .IRndHrd 1o k"rp Ihe probability oC fallin~ on SJ:A b .. low ~ percent. Thil means tim' munn{fldurf'f~ must.chleve excpll"nl qUII'd~ cllnl, "lor elle dellgn their emiliion co"I,"1 Iystl!ms 10 reach le\· .. I. h,'''''' 1111' 'tAndard on the avera,e. Olh/'IWi,,', 'f th" control .~·8t .. m were d/'"i~n\'d I" ill~I mrelthe slandard. only aboul half Ih .. enMlne. would pall.

To delermlne how far a mall"!.,ch,,,·r would have to dealgn below Ihe .tandard. two factors mu.! I", lahn ifltn account: 1) Ihe varlabllily of Ihl' pltrtlculale emi .. ions of Ihe producllon IInRlnee of. IIhlen enginp. family. and 2) the Iman number of proll,lyp ... "pon which the deftign decision i, mndc. The 10 percent Icceptablp qualil~' I ... 'cl (AQI.) could leld manufActurers 10 dellllJl their e",lnel (on the d"erage) 1o meel • parllculltelevell.28 timee the .,dlllns ,t.ndard devlalion lower Ihun the .'sndard (allumiog s normal dl.lrlbutlon 01 emlnionl) or manufacturen could Impron qualily control to reduce vllrlabilily. which would allow them to desls" c1o."r to the .tandard.· WhU. EPA belie'c" Ihot Ihl' producllon variabllily of purh(ul"Ie .,,,I .. lonl could be reduc..d ffllll1 .odeU", level •• the lock of d"Iu on Ihe exllll", variability of production engines. plue the lack of data on the .Mlly to reduce nrlabllily. prevenl. It reliable/udgmenl 10 be matle CIl"Cernll'~ thll abllily. The Ibscn~ of "";,iI"ltl" lell facililiel .lao preven" uny "Hurl h\ EPA to oblaln luch data on ita uwn. Since EPA cannol dOler'mhlt' in Ihe ca'" of thl. resulallon Ihat reductions In variability will be sufficient I" """I wilh the effllCt of a 10 percent AQI.. il i. reasonable to allow Cor .. red'l/:lJon in Ihe dellllJl t8'11et for Ihe aver"g" \'chid" 10 account for the presence of II 10 pen:,mt AQL As Indicated abov/!. thl. allowance ehould be 1 :J8 tim,', ltoa etandard deviation of purticuJ.,le emissions fwm production I'nH,n ... While no aclual data on Ihp pa, lieola!1' emission variability Qf pro,h ... lilill enAin!!. are avaifabl .. , EPA o"'tI"ed Ihlll this variabililY would be limlla' 10 Ihul for giUU"OUI emilltons. or 12 l'uorccnl uf

n"!tm "lIIi •• lOno.· (;i~.," thi •• thu .(fuel of Ihe 111 percenl AQl would be hi illCrtlUti" the lechnologically feu sible level by 15.4 percent. or a faclor of t.l54. Including the effect of baling design d"dslons on only a sman number of prolotype enginellaSiumed to be three in Ihis cIIse! raiseslhia fector to 1.24.

EPA requesla data on the actual production line variability of particulate emissions. the degree to which prudu<:tiun line variability can be reduced. and lIIIO on tile methodolO8Y used hy manufacturen to delenDiDe thdr de,ign larsels.

DN;,""lio/l of Standarif. A1llhe above IIIt'nlilllwd f;lclon were combined ta yi"ld Ihl' propoaed 0.211 g/BHP.hr .tllndnl~1. Firat. Ihere I. Ihe engine-out pl\rliculiitele~el of 0.41 g/BHP-hr which i. reduced by 110 'percenl via trap­uxidizer lechnology to 0.164 S/BHP-hr. Then, tnkins intd account the effect of t'llli'Hilln vuri"bility and the 10 percent AQI. inr.rellses Ihls value by a factor of 1.24 100.203 a/BHP-hr. finally. the • It!terlura\lun faclor 1.1.2 Increa.e. the "'"hnlllol(ically feulble level to jUlt ulld.'r 0.25 II/HtfP-hr. which II tbe leveJ I",illg proposed.

Ellvirollmental Impact:tt.e proposed "liI"dard will reduce particulate "IIIisSlOIl8 from heavy-duly diesels by 64 pelLent in 1995 with respect to what would he expected withoul regulation. N"liollwide particulate emissions In 1!~15 frolll I",avy-duly diesels will be ",t1uL"d Irum upproximalely 218,000-2HO.UUII metric tons per yellr 10 78.000-lIa,ooo tnl!tric ton. per year. Urban purlicll)alc emissions from theae \ ..tlid,'. wiil 0180 decre88e 64 percent In HllI5 II "I" 79,000'\17.000 melric lona per year III 211.0UO-35,ooo metrie Ions per ~".tr. Th,:! emission reduction will n',h":I' IImhienl heavy-duly die.el I""lieulul!! lev";. in lerge cilie. (e.8., Nt!w Y",k. Chic"llo. los Angeles) from 1.7-7.2 lu f).~2.H micrograms per cubic IIIelf" (unllual mpons). Huavy-dlllY tilt'se\lJarlicullllfl levels In smaller citit,. "'~ .. SI. LUll is. l>illshursh. Phoenix) will "Isu dl,t"' .... · (rom 1.~.9 10 0.6-1.8 llIic.:ro~rdms pf!r fubic meh~r (annuol III" .. nsl· l.onlliu·d levels whi<:h occur "VI" anti .• h"ve Ihese hltger·scale II11p;o<:l9 wtll also clecn'd~p from •. 6-5.6 IIIiel'tlw .. ms per ,,"hic mel"r 10 1.6-2.0 IIIi<ru~ .. allt" ppr cuhlc melef (IInnulII III."""'. TI",s" luller Impucls could uct IIr ,," 1.1f 8' 110 m('l"r9 fmm "cry busy 1"11,111 .. \ ,,\.:1 ....

Tht! u'I",\'" IInp.u:fS dfWriy show thu htJ.(llIfh .1111 rt~dllcli()n8 in IImbient

l.1t IIHII\o"I dH •• II~ .t· .. Ih~ Ftf'Jtullllorv "'IUlly." .. """,,,It Ih .. tt"Io1UI.IIUf) Allj.l~ ",/'0 lor 1tM:

t, • II: .,I.d .. \.!'.. 1t1l1""\I'llm dl""II!lIIlIlIlotlhc Itlf fIU/lllt.r ,·"1'·' I pI h •. 1\\ ·ddly .11"1101·1 p.arlit uloJtu elU~.IIIUft~


parllculule emi •• ion jev"'. e'IWduo frum lheae rClI'Ilations. II lihoulti be noled. bowever, Ihat nltt all :H'~" of purtlcul"le maHer hd'" Ihe 8Ullle !evd or impacl on hum'liI heal:L Sl"lcH porticlea, whi<.h "CC rmlcll more IIkei) 10 be deposited in the 61"eol.f region Ilfld

which requlro much longer \leriod« of lime to be c.lea~d {rum Ihe r~.;pnd"'·:: tract. are believed 10 be much mG'''' delelerlous to human health 00 .1>1 "('J<'! mall bul' thoin Iltra"r pllftJde8. '!w •. control or dieael l'"rilcuJele (100 pere.m! I. Ie .. than 15 mlcrol1letel'8 In diameipf and approximalely 9'! percen! I, IpaG than 2.5 mlcrometcrll in dlamp.tll~l is elpecially Imp<)rl~nl wl!h I'cspv,:i ie' human heulth. There i8 Ills!! pHr\i"'l:"~ concum o".r th8 chonties! (:.um?L~.H.ia)'l of diesel partiellilll .. emi •• ion., ii" l.h·" .xlrHclllble organic frocti~" ilf '.l'eF' particulale hos been shown !o ~ mulagenic in .hQrl·l~rm btoau.q:i8 (;PA Is currently PfflorminS II h(lal!1l aueaamenl to d.,lerm!no (h~ carclnoll"nlc ri.~: (if aoy) to hUr<'lIIrllt,Hk. However. F.P-t t, .. , "'0\ :'~l"d t;, .. level of the proupoaed .I"ooard Oil eh \, pre.ulnplion of It carcinoll(!!W "TN': being IISsociated with dleaeJ p"r'IClli,,\<, Should futun! roeu/II from Ill" di*'g"" heultb effects siudie. Indicate ':':;" furlher Bction i. nec.l!.sary I') ';\.lI:n,,' diesel particul,,!;, erniutaloo&. Ef' h -",il exercile its o.ulhurily und", Tllu, il d the Cleun All Act to do 80,

Economic Impact (All Cos:~ "M [" Tams of 1980 Dollar:;): EPA .·;p~{:I~ \ll. reluil price of heavy-duty d!e"~1 ""h;des 10 incrcuse by appI1)l(irnale!y S5~7·~1 In 1986 due to the engine Mllr! ""hid", modlflc .. Uonl n"Gesoilsi"d by Iii:" rI18111"lIl1n. The retail pric .. :"",cp~~ of II new vehicle mentioned ah(}\,{! b I);')·.'u; 0.5-3.0 percenl of th£ lu!,,! co,; of" new he .. ,y·cluty.diesei vehid,~. The <~nllt of cusls I. dllo 10 pOHalb!" diffenm""R in Irup·oxldiur ,y"e"lG which In"Y be used on diffe ... ml models. Tn~ Imp­oxidizer syslem is allKl exp",,~ad 10 require mainlenance COAting .. bout $-10 when It I. five y~,,,. old. However, !hu vehicle mudlficdliol," inv"h,.,d ill adding Ihe Ir"p-oxidi",r will climin8\e the ne~d 10 rtpldce the ""hauDI pipe and mUmet throughoul Ihe ~ehicle'8 hk Thin ""n sa"e ahoul $4(1U In main teH6IIlUl coa,s (undl8coullled) durin!! the ~~h,,::I(", hi •. ,. in uB, \'~hidt! n\Hinh~nunre CORtS flh...H.Lk: decre ... " by $17a dac lu th" HII16 slundllrd (dilcllunled (" y'''''' oJ li.,hid. purch ... ae). Overttll. then, Plili rcy.ult",[ion will c081 5349-172 per v~hicle. All 01 Ihl'se c8Ii"'"le9 include profit .. I hoth Ihe mUllu(aclurer anti ue"l"r level. Overall. th~ incred."d C081 of owning Hlld "11"mhng" h"dvy·oul), diesel Jue 10 If,,; r"~IlIHli"n "til la, I.,<s Ihun 0.3 pfOrC.,nt,

JI.:Je ~, ... ~.';"lit snd future incrCifac. jn the PI';"" of l!.solill\l-ru~led vehicles duc to "mi"",,,,, conl,."l. Qnd the negligible , ... ,",J~' "f 'h'.s rc,t"J.Hhon on Ihe coal of

.1 ·l"'l ;\.!p JOQds \li8 heavy-duty ·1' fP .. '!-. ;::':XL"'c::!."ts no deereabe an til ,. 4'\ ~.n'l~p n:;iHiive Ii] fhl! sales of g I~·I ,Hl1r·h:,.~icd vehicles dUi~ (0

I..t I"" I ;.~n"(mlmf!nILd rCHubtion. The L ,., _ ;\;' ," .... :;"'t ";l Uu.,$ FfUposcd

"II· ;,~:~~ ii~:i.HJI.i.l"d OVf~r live years Ci .n,r . ,; c ;(1 ~ w;iI b~ $2.4\t---41.J million ll"·"·'" v:>llll! >ll hl&j, or l:~42 .. 731 OJ,,':!,;;, .'c"q<lllllie!ud in 19OOJ. Two p~t",5 , .. ~ \'L;t.'.,-' re"L"rl:!oco PftiJllS are given ~1f'C{.'I~:r,r ~'I.··'O rl~ilHrcnt i,;OJ\vuotions have ~'I""r: Hfifi(j I~ .\ j)ti&t; ~h('l prp.~cnt (lU8Uj ·\"ld .. h~~ .J~. til~' r, ;,,·;rj;..!Ird ia to he

" ~ '~, , '~',". ';.': "l' :: I Ii .. ' "

.~ '..,kk':t~ i;.. .J; ~h.; "nhflve f:n·.tL:\gs Into ;.,:' "..i"'~ ~;.~., l!r.£~.~ at f:pplyi',g thjJ t..cial(:io~ n~H~L8~ry ;0 meut the pr-:·p .... aea dii )d'.lyd appear reasunable. ~,::;:'\. hM,i1iI .if.:;';'!) '; :'4ruu!n.ed thp. impuct uf ~hlf.l j~{vPtHlft} :JI'l urban areas and uu!:ttded CC.Ul~'. Iluitiel and no adverse ""'.~"f.U~u~U "1'(1 expected .

C~.:~,.:" &.Jfe-~4; ~'V.JI!t?!;S: Sectiofl ;·.nZ.iail3JI./.;!Wq "I the Clean Air Act 1.',,"8 nolo require EPA to conduct 8 cost bbH,[H sl, .. ly&is. Ne .. "rthele, •. EPA hOB "'um",,,d the co~1 effectivenc68 of Ihe

",j.cd panicuJatc standard. In doing ""c. bPi, ~"![l\ined the Iraditional

., tC,06.;;iC:lY u."d 10 measure cost

.:;,',Iiveal'$u IInJ modified it ,lighlly. ·n".' ,It~j."(itlad standard appears I: ,!~~tiielH whn. recent EPA actions to '·I)lt'.In! t\~~€'!{;n,dry and mobile &oW'Ce ~Hlni,-·,t.~1,a~11't l~rf'.li'8iona which in '~;i·~ .. 'T:~:Jt'~'·i".;·,i ,*}C}rc coot &ffechve.

fI", Inc,!,.Iollal .... enure of cusl ,'fi"c':\""'~'" ,Jnll"J~ pcr metric Ion of r,~<1;\ '.'; '.~~re r,mI1n.JHed) CRn be made ~. !~i:;t r,'c:';;oa~.,.t.;~ ~o health improvements II, '.{;i,&u:l~rin:5 only the inhulable (less ~I ;~n ')1' leqU\lt U .. '" 15 micromehH'8 in ,',."''''1'1) <.lr fi!l<J (It-ss Ihan or equal 10 , 'j m'r.mmat"rs in diameierl particulale (,\\,! >0 commil"d. It iu Ihe illhalaule and, t.ospeciaH, h~ fiae fractions of ;·' .. .'~re.;iSe'.i. ;Jerhcuiate \':hich tf.ppear to II ",'." th, ren'el!l pMentin' for ad~er.e ;""\",IMpsct When ,hie 18 done, Ihe r.\w .... :.d~;a! c08t-·-eHediverH:~s8 ratio for the ,!1;jf'p"","y-d,"tl' diesel p"rtlculate " I '.JIldiI{d !r.(f"", af trap-ox,dizers alolle) i.; $WlO ... 14,OIW· m'!lric ton .. If Inhulab!e pl_Lrtfi{',atf~!e Hnd $lU7Q-·15Nl pel' metric t .. :~ '.I) f:!l~! Pilft!c;ulule !lWJO d()HlJr~J. ','\ :1I'f} H"l.)I :J.f fh\PS~l tlhtWl'.I ~irL' uacd. JI~ "ilii("d or 1.iH!1'lOd!rlt~d. Ibl cost ,·r'c"Jtvene .. of he,,,y·duly ti .... d (: .. lIIirol i. [uund to be conbi.kul wllh the cos, elle(:livelle .. of parhcul.l'" {;Pl//~O~ ~l~u!~1Hie. jmplem~nkd ill the l)~1 :-11. . It i3 InljJor!uni hJ bmphu.II.c Ill .. 1 in ""lile fe~pc',13 til" Illobiltil uud blatiollury

- 50 -

FmJltral R"8II1tM I Vol. 41\. No ... I W,·dnI'Mduy. !unun!-Y 1. 1ij,n I I'rorlJ~(!(f Rill". 1911

'I"""~ .'rAt"/lln. ror pllrlleuh.tfl <:onlrol ',,1\'1' r~rtAin "m .. rpnCCR In th .. lr primary Pllrl'''ftl' •. Thrr"lol'1!. IIcl~tlDn of II nll'"ollr" of eff~cttvl'nc88 for comparison purpoAcs hl18 Inh .... "nl limitation •. In ~pit .. of Ih~sc. however, the comparison mill slill h~ usofullo Iho lIegree IhAI 11 f(lc\I~e8 on Oil!' or Ihpsc common "lIrposeR. proleclloo of "ublle hCRtlh und welfare.

Thl'rll i8 anolher 81 .. 1" which oon be Ink .. n 10 improve tho! measure or cORI I·[[""IiVOn""8 and thnl Is 10 relale I'[["ctivCnetl8 10 redllctiona in amuienl 1'"lIlIlnnl cllncenlrAtion, in~h",d of 1·1l1l .•• ion reductions. I'eoplc', ('l(pOlure I" 1'"lIutlint. I. dirnctiy relal"d lu the 'If"hi!!nt pollutant concentralinn of Ihe .Ii, t1wy brealhe. but onljllodirtlCtly ,d"h'd In Ihe 8ml.Rlon» £rom variou. • "n,,"' •. Iif)wever. the dRill ~eaAary 10 t)l'r['>J'm 811Ch Gulet/luliona ore vnry d;f/,,'ult In ohlain and IItlnm'8l1y not fI\ ;1I:"bll'. Still. 10 Indlr.ate the polenlial d J[erl'nce8 between the air qURl1ty i1l1PH(.1. of different BOurnes. II

1·"lim('nI3ry air quslily analy';. wa. p(' .. f"rmed.' Using indicators of II ROllree's impact on air quality relative to it9 I'miB810n8. EPA fOllnd tbai both I","\·y· aod li"hl-dUly dlellels produce between 45 and 186 lime. tbe ambieot particulale concenlra\loo a. \he lallJe8t puwcr plan .. (2,920 mes ..... aU hlNll il1pllll haled 00 ~ulvalent emls8ion fa ..... Similarly, botb hoavy- and li""l· dilly dillsel. produce between 1.1 and 4.7 limes !he ambienl pollul8ll1 ,..,ucenlrali"n PI smaller power plants 17:1 I1w" .. wa" heat Inpul) baeed 00 "'1l1iVlllootllmlnlon Tales. No localized tmpach from either source " .. ere "';"'Iined. Dilly larg .. -ocale Impacts. If Io".IIIi7 ... d Impactl had beeo .. xamined. II,,· rl'R"l\s ml!!M hB\'C beun tlifferent Till' .. c.ult. from other stationary ""trC"1 cuuld olIO be quite dlfTl!retlt.

JII~I conRldllrlnll differenc,," In the r,.J"lion.hip helwlleo emisaions and air """itty. Ihe results of Any comparison of (lI,1 pffecll,""n!!ss could bl' chAll8ed oI""tiral1y. Inde"d. there 8'" mAny other L·ci"," which ~hould AI.o be I:onsidered. ,\, Illl'ntiooPlI PRrlier. Ihe above 1'01108

un' 'lilly nn eXlremely roullh e8Iim .. l" of I!", ,..t"'h·!' nil' quality impoctI' of diesel. ""d I'",,,,r plaols. Many simplification. ,,'I'r,' lwcPflsnry in ordpr 10 make this I I\/III,ari.on Ht an. Overall. however. th" II'Sldl8 Hls{) indlcale dearly that control .. [ Ji,,',,·1 p,!"tkulate Is nOlles. CO"t \ frl'd(~!' Ihnn olher cnst~P.rrecti\'(! ( oBtro~ mp;'("~r~' Rdnptcd by EPA n~lng ~'lI' rnl'<I~Wp~l of I'fTecti\'('nes~ ni~rll~s('[i ,Iho\·.,

. " "

AI/,>m(]lil'" Arl;o".,·: enntr,,1 of PI,rllrulnle rOlI •• lons from h"avy-duly dleael Vf>hides h n,qllitf>d hy Ih" CII!"n Air Act. Thus. FJ1'A does not huve Ihe dlserf'tion to foreRo conlrol of heavy· duly dielel particulAte "miR.iunl In favor of oth"r control 8trAIeRIIlR. lIowl!ver, alternativI! Individual engine .IHnd .... d. and/o .. Implpmonlation dal ... for this heavy,duty diesel particulate standard were "xamlnlld.

The Clean Air .... quire. this parllculale .tandard to "renpct Ihe RfI!alest dellree of "misslon control ar.hlevable throuAh the applicalion of lechnulogy which the Admioialralllr determinea will bl! available for Ihe moonl your 10 which SliGh alandlud. apply." EPA must Rlso Rive due consideration 10 cost. eoergy. and Bafely. The maio g01l1 of our Rnlllyai. of .. ltematlve t~yels and d"lell . then. waR I" doterminll thl) levol(o) lind timing of the Siandard which h"st complied with the reqllirements of Ihe Act.

Fir .. , EPA considered Implemeoting a one-atep vcraus a Iwo-slep alandnrd. A onl!·atep siandard sel al the final h,vel of to{:hnology (Irap-ol(ldlzel'8) would be available in the 8ame year (1986la8 Ihe revised NO, staodards ror heevy-dulY diesel8. As alluded to ('arlier, ' manu[aclurerll will be required to cerlify Iheir eoginel ualog the traDBienl lest procedure bellionin!! in 1985. Thla eS8entially precludes 80 interim 811tndard earlier Ihan 1965 aloce it would hAye to use the 13·mode tell procedure. which would nol be 81 repregenlative of in,u8e particllinle emiaaions Ra the Irlln8i .. ol cyel ... An Inlerlm 8tandRrd for 1985 would apply for only 1 model year Rnd provide only mnde.t reductiona io particulate eml •• ion. III a time when no sillniflesol tncren.es wnuld be "",ppclrd. aince the NO, .taodnrd wuuld not come into effeet un III 19811. A Itaodord 10 198.' would also divert valuRble Asency Rnd induslry resource, from implementing und meeting Ihe 1986 8t8nd"roA (NO, lind particulate) Rnd shlflins them lowArd 8 le80 effective ioterlm particulate standllrd. In 1986. with thl' comiTV! of Ihe revised NO, slRndllrd, 8

partiGulalt' atandard will be o"'Hled to pr .. venl potentiAl 10crellRes In parli<:u\ale emissloM. !JOWI'VP.l'. by then a slnndRrd bAsed on trAp-o'lldlzllrs cnuld he implcmpnt .. d.

ErA s"ecificlllly considered R Iwo· Btep standard wilh I"" firsl standard Iilki"!! .. rr .. ct In 191\11. Under Ihl. scP""rio. 1111' 1'11\6 shtnd"rd would he bn!Wd on improved cn~inc df!8i~n. whitt' Ihe laler 0180d8rd (in thil I:ase. t!lllRI would be 1)f181'<1 on Ihe use of trill'· ,,,id,zPr'. This Ahernntivr. would huv" ttll' :Hh l:InLIj..W of IIlIowinR

mnnllructurPt" mort' timp to df'\,,·lnll trap-o'(idi,.'rw Rnd RI80 I .. "arlll,' Ihi. work from Ihlll relaled 10 engin!' d.-."lupmen1. lis di.lldvunlulI"" were Ihe ndded cool or re".,rtifylnl! nli ('oRinell in 1'188 lind d"layinR the primllrv lIir qURlity benent of Ihe r"Rlllation' for twn mm!' yeAi'll. F.PA also "" .. minf'd the "f(ect of delflY on CApitRI and Imp­o"idlzer (!OIIt,. but fOllnd no "ubotanlinl advllntolle re9ullinA from thl8 n"prosch In all. EPA found Ihal the I"edlime ndv80t"II" of pollponinM th .. finRllpyp.1 of control did not outwelllh thl' d"IIIY of the air quality heneflts of R .I"ndard which could be Implpmroll'd in 1911f1 hR.ed on tee/molOlY and leAdtime ton,lde'ltUona. This WOI partieulllrly lrue AI""o thot there IIppellrrd 10 he no gr~"t cosl benent Involvl'd with d"IHY. For these rensons:F.PA cho.e II on .. -;tep stundnrd In 1986. However. F."A wOllld r,>conolder a Iwo-Itep .Iandard approa"h If uddltlonal datil warrnnt...t Buch IICtion.

Second. EPA considered the posalhl .. choke. for the l!!Vel of Ihis ""ndard. Th ... e alternative level. have Alrendv be,'n di"cu'~l!d In thp. Il!ction on . technology and will nol be repented here. In summary. EPA "" .. mined Ihl! vorioullevel. In lighl of the r;1"on Air Aet requlremen1 thai Ihe slllJIII"rd reneet the (!Testest reduction potenli .. 1 achievable conSidering lin! l""dtime u"ailable nnd other spp.clfied r"cloMl And concluded that the standArd which is b"ing proposed was approprinle. Thr. isoup. of COlt haa already bl!en "i.cu •• ,'d previously, 80 no further ml'nlion of It will be mede here. Since Ihe propoa"d stAndard will not ",'ecllh .. fuel economy of heavy·duty dI ... "I •. it i. rf'l18onable wilh rr..pecl to POf'fJlY Implleta. Based on numerou. <ucr.f'".ful regenerations of prololypl' trnp· oxidlzcMl, F.PA IIlao e'tpeel. Ihllt the application of trap-o"idi~"'r technologv Clln IlOd wlfl be mode In such H ",aV n~ to enRure the ",'e op.m.tion of Ih" . vehicle. 8 ThUI. In considernlion of All Ihese fllclol'8. we ehoRI' Ihe level nf 0,25 gram per brake hore"priwer·hour In 1988 proposed lodsy.

The USl!! of an BVt!l'Rllinllappronch upon which to billie fhe "r.tunl particulll'e standllrd i. nol plnnn,'" for Ihis rulemaklng. Howevf!r. FoPA i. AClively "xploring Ih~ fcaslhiiily of .. ml8Rlona averaging lind will h .. proposing an lI\'el'8glnll Rche"", for controlling NO, I!misRions from li~ht­und hpRvy.d"ly lrucks The rr·8,,1I. of Ihi. n"nlysis of """'"lIillll will in pari dplermin~ if EPA will r.nnsid,·, PIIII"SiOnl AHfOging fur Ihi" h,·.n y-d\lly

.. COfl'U:' Ih .. J,l"A'lIT"luq ,\" .. k .... "'1 fq, t'ln d,·I.,,10;

- Sl -

1918 Federal Regialer I Vol. 46. No.4 I Wednesday. IHnt:~I'Y 7. HlSl f i'ropOiled Rules

.s",.cllhlrllwldh, atllnd.trtlllnd olher

.. xishnH mobile lource emissions slllndllrd. Ihrough fulure rulemol<ing 1I<;liunH.

Majur Hevisian. 10 the ExiBtiJIS lIeavy·Duty Test Procedure: The recently promulgated lIueou. emissiun. regulation. for 111M and laler model yellr heavy-duly enginel (45 Fa 41361 included a nflW te.I procedure for determining 1111141001 .xhaUlI eDIlaaionl frum heuvy-duty engine •. The teat . prucedure apeciriuG for di .. el engine. WII' very similar to Ihal .peclfied for gllaoline enginee end applied 10 the 81lme guallou. pollulanl. (He. CO, NO.). With Ihe mUljdale 10 regula Ie particulala emilsions. EPA hal propoaed addition. to Ihe heuv)'-dul)' die.e' le.I procedure 10 include Ihe mlla.urelllllnt of purliculale emiasion. from di ... , enginee. Thele additions will Dol affect the bosic heavy-duty teat procedunt nor Ihe Itringency ollhe teat with reapeet 10 gaseous emiBlions, bUI merely apeeify the additionul equipment and IItepll ,,,,,,easIIrY. for the mca8urement of die .. 1 purliculille.

IlHcauHI! EPA jusl recently revamped Ihe h"avy·dury engine te81 procedures and foresllw al thaI time the need to propose these modifications, we took atl'ps lh.'n to ensure Ihllt no unnece88ary e'luipm.ml expenses would be incurred by rnunu(llclurera lind others inlereated in ll'sling diclel engines. The leal procedure modifications being propo.ed lo(lI.y do re4uire certein pieces of equipment 10 be US8 which are nol requiwd for gllseou8 emiasion lesling (c .R .• lire dilution tunnel). To prevent lhe need for replacing equipment for meu"lIdnl! gil8coUS emiBsions which had he"n 1I."d for only a sharI period of lime (,,~., lhe dilulion tunnel replacing th" hllrn" 100,,) wilh new equipment to allow nWaSlIT'<1l1l111 of purlieullll" emissiolls, EI'I\ onginuily desillned Ihe gaseous emissiun ksl procedure 10 allow for the uddil,,", u[ e4uipment associeled wilh p"rhculale lesting wilhoul ma1.ing ob.olch! any of the equipmenl used [or 0"',18I1rin!! ga,,,,,"s emissions. In Ihil wily. nwnufliclurNs could desi!!n Iheir tmosil'nt test cell8 10 alluw for [ulure purticlllu,!! Ie sling. even though the 11U.l/ctd.de! standI/nil hlld nol Y61 been Plupo"I'd. and none of their dfort would have bell II wll6ted.

Addition. Hnd chungee lu Ihe currcnl 1'".I .. rlll '1',,&1 Prucedure WfPI for diesel. IIIut wUIII,1 btl h"ouKht about by the illwrp'" ulion ,,[ pilrllLulule lesting me uibl:u".,,,lbeiow:

(I' Th,' particulalc n","surement prll,,(!dIlI'C would re<juire .. tlillllion lunnd """ II con.lunl muss sampler (i.e .. II Iw"h'" ,·,,,II<lnl!l'r musl precetle II", <:rill",,1 nuw venlu'" or the (JosiIlVl!

:mrn: ="'_ • .. _

dispioccllleni pump) The <lilull"", hnncl would hove to be .uHici~ntly lopg to Bssure thorough lOi~ing 01 the .amphng probes. The uoe of " mixing 00" wi(r. exlenlive bilrnlllg wul rejected hC!;HH;c,

of suspected pllrllcu!l1le loa8 on il~ Burface •. A conslunl mO~8 sampler. liS

oppoaed 10 0 conslant volume Illmpler. Is nllCe8.llry for parlieul"le te8ling I" insure Ihat Ih' particulate eampie Ii\ken I. proportion. I 10 Ihe entire eminioo.~ of particulate from Ihe engine 81 any siver. I1me.

(Zll'he lolal mils, 01 parlieul .. l;! emil.lona would bll mell9UJ'oo .imultaneou.iy wllh '\!guI9ted gail<uu. emil.ions over the 'r'I/1~lftnl cyd ... -i~.' particulele mllll~r. r.!tef dll"non ~p,~ mixing with ambie"t air .ill Q rmotkm lunnel. would be collected on ill:.,.,· media (fluorocarbon or nuofOt(u'iJoll' coated gl811 nber) over bolh thl! cold and hoi .t6rt portiolll or lite lea!. The temperature of Ihe diluted exhauBt al the location of particulate Mmpling would hove to be k~pt below 126' F i!l17' C) al alltimcs. This could be accomplished by ellher of two methods. einglil or double dilution. Wilh single diluriol'. (he eonstllnl mass t8mplcr wuuld he ve Ie be of sufflclenl CIlPlicity L. lHaintain the lemperalure of the entire dilu!ed exhousl below 125' F [51.?' C) a! the particuhtle probe tip. With double dilution. Ihe temperature uf the (hlut",] exhauat in Ihe primary tunnol would btl allowed 10 be well above 125' l' (51.7' C). but a aecond dilution o[ 8 frl!cllol1 ,lI" the exhaust nuw in the primill") lunnel would have 10 muintain Ihe temperat"r" of Ihis smalier sample below 125- F (51.7' C) 01 111.1 times durin!j the leY:'

Thi.1Z5' f (51.7' C) icmperulure r"slriclion i8 nece9bury 10 1!l8uro lit", he,,,·y hydrowrbons and o(ncr or/!unic compountiY. which would b"c(lme associaled with the particles up ott amoient dilulion in reu! life. are 018u m"a.ur6d by EPA's tesl proel·durl,. Thi. tempccature requirement also call~eu some of these heavy orgllllics 10 b .. measured twice. OJl{:8 8S purticulull.:' and once 08 hydrocarbolls. B,,[ol'., the ien,l of ""huilsi hydrocarbon. i. mAullu",t\ under EPA's leSI I'roct't1ure. the samp!t' is heuled 10 375' ~. (191' C) to drive .'m," of Ihese hydl'Ucllroons uif "f the parlkul"le. These hydmcurl'(lll" Oil (~" purlieul .. lc ut 125' F (51)7' q .IOU '" I. h." /!.ISI'UU. phu." al 375' ;: (WI' Cj nwy pi.lrlkipdle in o).iddnt-furmin~ rcuctlon~ lIod therefore should bli measured "' h}·droc .. rbon •. Th".e s"nw h~'dJ'ocarbons 1lli.1:'" ulso remain nn the parlicuiate dnd be inhllied a" uuch an,( thNduw o\;ullid ,,18u btl mcu/lurcd liS


Aa .,;,tn be aecn from it!) examintltiun of Ih~ te.t precedure amendmenls being p,oposed loda~, EPA has republished rh" entml Subparl N. which contains Ihe 111<:,;:".,( test procedure for heavy-dUly Vdlic:~~, il<l$;>line·fucled and diesel, for the 111~G model ye~r. We did Ihis for Q

number of reason •. One. we hoped thul Ii is ""'Juid provide Ihe user with a j,.~~8Jc. 'i..omtlrehenSlve document cl;"t~;ning the heavy-duty test pro,;odute for both 80S80UA and ntJ.-tll,:u!d~e emi."ionn. This would avoid ,Iw 1:~"J hI piece Ihi' propo.,,1 t08"ther Wi to :)1;\1;-' puhlicaHolls In order to obtain a complol~ leat pror.edul<!. Two, while tbe a"'l:;.'~l" of ~ub8Idnti'Je changes to tilt! {~ ~ ~ ~rv .. :(;duf"~ is hlnlr~d. (he large ~ml$U·'.i.~ .~;' h:~.i;".i'n:.;;: Jefef'enci~g done in a"bi"':" :" for dencriptl • .!e I.urpnses (e.g .. .~~ /jj;U3tCl-Mj ntquires ,r .• "y seelions to he re,'iseu because the references will ~h"'lHe Ihl "-00"). Thus. the majorily of tiw "Qcl1c.r,~ In Subport N would h"ve needad 10 be revised regardll!ss.

While the republlelilion of Subparl N IOi the l!1-!i6 model year makes il eusier to use :he IOsl procedure in practice. II also IDltkeS it more difficult to idenlify Ihe rellisi'lnl being propoBed loday. To aid lh066 inlerested in finding Iheee t<'vi.jone. EPA has 1i81ed below Ihe 8edio,,~ of Subpart N which coni sin ~··.upon~d ~ubalantiva revision8. Any ,cvi.iolla ~ont8ined In olher sec lions sitould only be revised references or th" "udllion of "particulate" 10 descriptive ."nlones& whichcurrenlly describe Ihe \est procedure "" applying only 10 the !lll:a8uremanl of g8SeoUB emissions.

&clioos in Subpart N containing I.roposdd subslonlivo revieions are: .tkll~ '00 1J;{\ •• I 86 n12~,.98 16IlIUIHlII I fjl\n~'....,

i 88.1337-<16 , "iI. lJ:llHl6 , "" 134z..&1 I .. , 134<1-116

TI!BI Procedure AlllJrnotive,;: EPA considered oml rejcct"d Iwo illternaltve Il'chni'luc8 (or e8lim"ting on·the-rolld pHrticullite emissions. The first was 61lloke measurement. EPA rejected Ihis ,,,,,hnique oeellu6c II smoke does nol currdllie wl,1I with parliculale emissions I

across engine lines lind 2) sllloke il\eW:lllf(~menb arc very inUCCUfc.:tP HI the I

hovds encountered Over most uf Ihe Iranuil'nt cycle.

In 'iplle of Ihi •. Ihe pre.,once of the sllw~e standard loll. hulpud 10 prevent purlieuiute ell1ission. from increusin!! whilv no parllcul~/t) .t"noUids were ill elfm:t. There i. SUIll~ cllrrelatiun between .moke and I'driiculutll lind .. worst cuse 11181 IIIwaY8 hilM some effed on nlh",.-lhan·Wllral·casll ~onditions. However, a smol<c ~L~nd.mj iN nol ,I vluble long·I<!fT1) illlllt'Ilijlive to H

purticulute cmiq.iUII "tanda.d.


Fedftf'al RfIIIw- I Vol. 4ft, No.4 I W~dn"Kd"y. lallllllry 7, 11181 I P!'CpoR"d Ruh-s 1919

The exl.tln, smok" 1m aM .t.ndard nr(! h.-Iltj! M!htln"d 81on, wtllt the ",III ilion of pertioulnl" MtIRg. 'I1Ie smoke 1 ... 1 "",,,wurasllflftllke under W\lr~\ u"r "",,dilions which .,... aot often t'ncIl"ml!""d 11V1!1' the tr~ cycle. Th~l'f'fo"". It Ie unllll"" thtll the I'II,.li<:"loll' ,Inndanl,,' __ uld InRure .. o"tin" ... 1 """'pliane!! wllh the exllting ."",ke .IRnrl"rde. AI.a, the C11rrnnt Amukp "llndRrd "X11l18 prlmlll'l1y for ""stl"'lic rem""'a whioh do nm Ili'''I'P''"r with Ihe "dd"lnn of parti""IIII .. leRtin!!.

Thfl ,rconill£'ChnlfIUP.I':PA· r.onftlder"d IV"S "ptI-Rcouslk .. 1 m .. RRu"",""nl. Thl. t"r.nni'l"p ".1" 8 low"r h .. "m 10 heal Ih .. pa,'icl"s in Ih!! exhau~t and meosures II", rrsultlng pre •• ure W"VItS with 8

'I",rlmphone. EPA Rlso n-j"cted Ihi. I"chni'!ue br.collBe (1) It Is 8S Y'" IIl1l'rtl\'Cn and {ZJlt nppeftu 10 hAv .. ll1<1ny of Ihe BAme correletion pmhlf"ms "" ,,"okr m"asurement. prlmRrlly Ihllt the ""D"sliclIl response varies with th(! chpmk"l com;msilion of the particulart'.

Own;;!',; from Previous Dmlt Te .• ' /';'oI('f'ffllfY" r.rA pulllished the "1)",1'1

R .. ctllnmrnd"d Proclke for M",,8urem.ml of GMeous lind P".liculat!! fmissions from Heavy-Uuly Oiesrl Engines Under Transient Co",litlons" in 1\prl11979 and dislrihul"d It on M ... ~ 8. l~. Two mHn"lnclurNs-Colcrplllar TJ-aclot Company And Cummins EngI .... (""'IJ~n)'-rt·.pondcd 10 the reque.1 fur 1:01I1I1I"n18 011 the Drafl Recommend.d Praclicu. One of lhe more BigniliClM\t n-spOllses WIIS Cummi8s' -oDmmenl Ihet ."hslunllol errors in Ihe inslllntaneous proporlionAlity of Ihe sumple laken from Ihe poil1lllf'Y lunnel (up 1025 pW-cenll miM;,1 .. "s"lt with the double-dlh.Uon ""'nplin~ lechnique due 10 Ihe Iwo "1'("",,1 r"sidenee Ume in the secondAry tllnnni. The ecrecl 01 8uch an error on . parlir.ulnle meaBuJ"em.mls would depend lin Ih., plI.lide concentrations III the tillles the .amplin!! errors occurred. Ilowl!vcr, lh~'"l hll,tantaneouB tCll1I"",'ralions clln.ol be me88Ured al thi. time.

In il. ,,!udies of thr Iwo .yaleBl. Ie d"",. EPA hIlS found no evidence Ilml 1'11)' ~lIch 8IImpiing error actually .. ffpcle th,· mllsa of pArticulale collecled. R8ther, Ih~ eviden"" indicoted Ihn' Ihe two s,".lellls produced very comparable "'Sll"~. Ilowl'ver. [PA made one n",dikaliu" to the drl\fI recorn'lWnti"d pracllel' which should Rub8lnlllia/ty "'duel' any inslanI8nf!OU. sampling "rru," "ad furlh"r en'Uf., IhRt no tueh (-rro," would Ilfl'oci the 111 .... of parliculole coUpcl.d. EPA hft8 ."dllCl·d Iii,' r"'ll1ired ",sidenoe time 01 tho oIil"Io,,1 .,xhll,"1 in Ihr necondnry hlnnl'l

fmm 2 til 0.25 wer.ontl. The I"It,,, rc"idp.nCt'! lime W8B d"rivoo from confirmnble IIlIhl-dlll)l dic ... llpAlinll u,inS Ill ... ingl .. <tilulinn tl'l'hni'I"'" II "Treeonla the lolnl lime noc"ulIry aft!'r dllulion to enRU,,", thallha Aaleous anu pnrticulate phal"'. co"", Ia ... uilibMnm !>dore the porticul,,'e IR collecled.

'fh<o Mlmein""r of Ihe (XlImllflnl. from ho(h mml\lflletunJra relaled to very delailed AlP"ct. of Ihe I".t JI"lCedlll'e. EPA hRI incorpnrHftod Ih,·.e commtmt .. ..... h .. ". ".,..Ibl •. Into Ih. IMI procedu", heinll propo8ed ludllY_ Sume RlJllelled rcvi.iOlt11l 'W1m! nol mlldft, howlOVer, due to Ihe fACI Ihol no dl1la wer!" pntll'1ltfld 10 supporl the viAhillly of ,he revlllion. A oeleilfld II11ft1Y8i. of lhe comlDflfltl I. ""n("into<! in Ih .. dod, .. 1 and (".fin .... n b .. ohlained by cftllll1!l or wrllln!! \he ('ont"el penon fN thl" rcllulalifl" (shuwn Rbovel.

s,.fP.dil"" Enforr.f.'n7f"'" A.rtdir;~ (SEA): !'IF"" will be p .... form"d on production h"R\'y-duly dies,,1 ""IIint'. I"'ginniltj! in Ihe 1984 model yeM 10 dt!lermlnl' whether Ih"y confonn 10 the r"Mu!..lion8 und"r whi"h th~r reept!Ctlv. c,-rlili<:at"l of confum"", were 1.lurd, Subpart I( of rarl 80. SFA of New CII.olln~-l'ue'pd Rnd Oi .. Sf-' Heu'y-Out, F.n!!ines (45 FR 41311, Ifln. 21, 111M). describes thr I'rollflOl11 for Ihe lesllns of Ihtllt! angln" •. l'nrllRrnph • 1IIl.100IH14(1l1 of Subpftrll( providt,~ IhAt fhetll' e"l!lnt!ll wfR be lested In Bcconlnnce with Suhpurl N. With Ihe ".I"hlllhmant of a new pRrltC1l1n' .... mission .tllnc!o~ and Ihe addition or particulAte le.llnR procedures to Subpart N, PoPA wOIrtd require SF.A tesling or heD\'Y·d,lfy dleArl erlRinea for compli',"!:" with Ihi. slandard beRlnning in Ihe 1\l88 mod,,1 year_

Nonconfnrmam:t' Pr.llaft'ell.' Section 206(S) of Ihe Clr"n Air Act provid ... for nonconfom18ncc pen8111"IINCPs) ". , In the case of any clRss or colegory of heAvy-duly vehicles or enaines It1 whlr:h B slRndard promuJgalrd under Icctlon 202(n) or Ihis Acl npplies .... " As discussed elsewh"re in thl. prellmble, EP/\ believe. thllt an hrAvy-dul)' dleael !'ngin". will be cupable or complying with Ihe p"'p08ed !hlndard_ If"w .. ver. whenever II manufaclurer mUll do subslantiul developmenl work and/or mllke BubsJAnlial modification! of ""i.lm, emission cOl1lrollechniquel In order 10 bolh certify and produce heavy­duty dlege1 engine. capable of cOl11l'toying with all re8ulatory requirements. Ihere is 80me riak Ih.I unforeseen circ*msl'lDce. could result In "ledlOultl8ical laKR0rtls," i.e .. manufartur .. ,s whose hen¥y-dul, dit!lel .. nRines ar .. incap"hl .. of complying wilh Ihl' rf'~III"tion. Thprdorl'. Ihe h .... ..-y-

duty diesel f'n\line. "flect,-I! I>y Ibis rPliulalian mlly be 8uhj"cl to NCI'A.

The propoaed pllrliculalr. emiN~i"" .lnnrl"nI for hellvy-dnl), diesel !'nllin", i. partinlly h"Bed on the appliclttion of Irap·oxidizer exhouHI treatment d,,~'ir." •. 1\8 discus"l'd in the "TI'Chnolof(Y" •• -cllon, the ba.ic Irap-oxidize, conc""t i. weiJund"1'8lood. Ilowp.vm. tilt'S" device. ere not currently IIvllil"hl .. 10 pe'mil complillnoe with Ihe prPIJoted Itandard; ".rIOO8 engh",,,rinM Improvt'ment. ,IIU hll"" 10 bl' mild". Therefore, Irap4lddizerl r"prt''''nl 0

baelcall¥ now emlnion conlrol lechnlque for which 8ullsll1nli,,1 developmenl work for heovy-duty di".el eRllines u •• i •• till required. ManufaClurers mil)' experien!:e unforeseen problems in Ihe de\'el"pmpnl And application of successful trup­oxidizers. and il Is fur this re,,"on thRI F.rA Inlend. 10 make NCr. avnilable Jor heBvy"duly die..,1 parliculate emissions,

The Agl'ncy is nol proposlnM Ihe spt!cific penally nle or Ihe "upper limit" on allowol:lle partlculnll' emissinns in Ihi. NJ'RM. These will be proposrd AI 0

Inler dAlp Ihoru~ soparolr. n,lrmoklng. wflh full opporlunlty for public comnrem. HPA'slnlMllion 10 orrer NCPtt dol's,"" elfec1II'Rdlime con.id,·rolion. for meelillSIht! proposed partli;ullll" Ilandam. Tt!e aVIIIIRhllily of NCPs should not be "'_ed n. a II1er.hanl.m allo""",, manufetlluren to d,,"iRD tn H

hi"h"r emlselon lIIend,,"I. bUI rlllher nR a "s1Ifety "alve" for thn.e who h""f' made 8«H1d faith elfort •. bUI er!' e>.pellenclna_OI'f'8ren p",hlems in compliance. EP1\ ·Intend. 10 slmclure th.· NCPa, ....... ubwd b)' the Acl. to remove any _petlel"e dl •• dvanlllRp. 10 manufaet""'"' GMIIP\pns with , ..... slRndanl. The penalty willallo inn .. ".p pettodlcaf)y 10 proYIde a furlh"r incentive to btina nnnconformin. enginn Inlo compliance nr to "r""lop new replacement enginep 8S

expedillou'-1y BI ,onibl ... E,'Oluolion Pion: EPA Inleml. 10

review Ihe effectivene ... 'anll need for t:ontinuollon of lhe provlllions "ontHinrd In Ihls action no more Ihan five veara aft .. r Inilllll implemenlAtion nf ltie nnRI reguln"on. In particular, EPA will .nlicit commoat. from affected parties with regard to ensl Bnd other barden. BRsocifllrd with compHance and will also review dllla on Iht! partieulHle emluion. from heDvy-duly d,,·,,-I ,·"hicle. built before ond .. 11,·r promufgBtlon of !be !'Pilule linn 10

determine bow efft!t:tivf' Ihis mN'S"'" hAl been. .

Rf'porti,. and Rocorrllr.eepinl( Rpquiromt'nl.: Thi. r""ulalion d'oe, nol "'quire Any new algnif" ani reporling or recnrdkl'eping hurdl'n Ilowr\'l·". it du ...

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1920 Foderal Rexlater I Vol. 46. No.4 I Wednn~dilY. /ulluury 'l. 1931 I Proposed Rules

wid pllrl":"I"I,, muller to the list of c~I"IU.1 pol/uhlllt. which ure currently r"Mulut"d from heavy.duty diesel •. A, .ueh it will have 80me Impacl on the current Inud of reporting and recordkt·.,ping requirements. Specifk"lIy. it will require: 1) submissiun of the design of all new cmi •• iull control systems added solely for the pllrpo.e of particulate control a. part of the manufacturer', application for (:ertifiGution: and 2) Inclusion of !be rale of purliculille einl.'ion from arrected v"hiclea 810na with other le.1 results. Ilolh of these addition. are Quite minor wlwn compared to the currenl reporting requiremenl •. Detailed de'igns of the diesel engina are already required and th" only device likely to come under 1) above is the tr~p·oxldi:wr. Similarly. reBul18 from guseou. eml88ion tell. are ulrl!ady requir.:d and thl' regulation wiU only require Ihe addition of a few numbers to whole pagel of valual.

Given thalille reporlina requlremenl. of Ihis regulation only Involve mlnor addilion8 to e).isling requlremenla. EPA does nul find il realOJlableto uutomuticlllly <lelele these requlremenl, if affirmutive "clion is nUllaken within fivl! years. Ralher. EPA believe. that it is In Ihe public·. beat interest to perform " review of thl< reporlillJl requirements of this rcgulalion alollJl with the review of "II uf Ihe reporting requirement. of mobile source air pollution re8ulation. Th,. review or reporting requiremenls will be purl of an overall review of Ihe reSl.lulions.themselves which wiU toke "Iuce within Ihe ne"t five years.

Nute.-The Adminialrdlor has determined th.u (hiM "dlon !II a "Signi{iatn'" regulation. WI:! hllve prt:llsred 8 document entilled "llellvy·lJuly Ilirael PurtiLul.le Regulallon.: R"Hulillory Analysis" delailing Ihe Regulalory Auul)llia dnd ulhp.r anul}'lIe. required by l-:"l~cuhv~ Or<.it!r 12044 lind Ihe Economic Irnpd(:t AlUwtisml~nl required by Section 31' uf lhe unwlldcd Clean Air Act. Anyontt may rt'vicw and rcprmhu:e this document in the E1'A Cenlroll Do"kcl s.,clion. Caple. are 01.0 u\'uifuf,ll' upnn reqlwst.

O.lle.l. Decem;'er 2.1. 1980. Oou", .. M. ('.0.11 ••

/\(JIlI ill I~ I HJlur.

EPA ,,"'pus.', 10 IImend Subpllrts A lind N of 40 CFR Plirl 86 liS sel forth 'Iwlow:

1. S"~tll>ll 00.086· 11 Is revised 10 reud j/~ fullnw,;

t .,.OJ8-11 Emlallon ,tende,. lor , ... and "'er mode' ~ .... die .. , """~-duty engine •.

'''1(11 E.huust I!mis8ionl from now 11l/1li,11.,1 later model yellr die.d heavy. ullly CIIIl"'I'. shull nol e"ceed Ihe 1"lIowil1!!:

(i) II) drocIJrb"lIs. 1.3 gl'ilm. pCI' bwke hOTsepOWt!r hour. us Qlcft.surt!d undt!c transient operlltiI18 cundltions (Subparl N).

(ii) Carbon lIiOJII"lde. 15.5 grums .w, brake horsepowe, hour liS measured under transienl operlJting conuitions (Subpar I N).

(iii) Oxides of niCl'Ugl.'n. 10.7 grumd per brake horsepower huur. 8S mussure8 under Iranslenl "",,,,oling conditions ISubpart N).

(Iv) Particalott' mot/er. 0.25 gr-ims per brake horepower hour. es measured under Iransient operating conditions ISubpllr! N).

(2) The S1l1nddrd. set forlh in paragraph (111(1) of this secliun refer to the el<huusl emi .. ions gcne"'ted over operllllng Ichedulu , •• .,t (odb 11\ Subpart Nand mcssured and ce\cuiattld In accordunce with those procedures.

(b)(ll The opacily of smoke emi'8ioll~ from new 111116 und 1"lel' model ysaf diesel heavy·duty "ngine8 .hali not exceed:

Ii) 20 pl'rcenl durlllg tho engim; acceleration mod".

(ii) 15 percenl durinS Iho e"lIirw lugging modo.

(iii) 50 pp.rcenl during the l'"tlh in either mode.

(2) The slandard, leI forth in parograph (b)(1) of Ihis 8ecllOI1 refer to e"hausl smoke emissions gt!lwfaled under Ihe conditions 8Ct (orth in Subpart I of this purl and measured and calculatlKl in IIccordlince wilh Iholle procodures.

(c) No crunkclI9c emis.ions shall be dischurged into the omhient almosphere from any new 1986 model yellr naturllUy-aspiruted diesel heavy·duly engine. This provision does not appiy tf) lurbochurged englOes.

(d) Every munufllcturer of new molu,' vehicle Ilngines subject 10 Ihl' sltlRd,mlu pre8crib"d in Ihls seclion shull. prior to laking any of the aclions specified in sec lion 203(0)(1) of Ihe Act. lesl or cause 10 be tcsleurnotor vehicle engines in accordance with applicable proc.edures in Subparls 1 or N of this pari 10 ascertuin that 8uch lesl cngincs meet the reQuiremenls of pHtagrophs(a). (b) and Ic) of Ihis section.

2. A new I 86.000-28 is proposp.d 10 reud U8 follows:

§ ee.0J6.·28 Compliance with emlHlon alenderd •.

("Ill) PurHlIrllph (HI of Ih,s "eclion applies 10 lighl·duly vehicle •.

(21 Th" uppliwhle exhnusl und fuel evaporative .'mission sland""ds or Ihi. suhpartapply 10 Ih" emissions of ""h,cles luI' thc" lIsofullife.

(3) SIOee II is ",,,edl!" lhut emission conlrol cffid.",,:y will chun!(e wilh

mileape accumulalion on the vehicle. Ihe emission level of a vehicle which hus accumulliled 50.000 miles will be us"d II. Ihe b"810 for determinillJl compliunec Wllh the stund",ds.

14) The procedure for determining complillnce oi 8 new molar vehicle with CXh~UBt 2mi6sion standurds is a8 follo\\'s:

Ii] Se-pal'8ie emissioll dell,rioration fuclol's 8h,,11 be dete=incd from Ih" exhau.! pmission resulls of Ihe durabihtydata vehicle(a) for each engirle-Hyelem combinlltion. A separale fador .hall be eSlublished fur exhausl He. exhai.sl CO. exhausl NOx. and ""hausl f.llriiculllle [d,esel vehicles only) fm ""ch enJolmc-systerll comhinutit,)n. A iJ,c:!parate evaporative emission JderloraCwn f~"'or shull be determined for cH(.h <Jvuporulive "mission fllmily-ev"porative .,mission control s),slt'm combination from Ihe IcsiillJl conduGied by Ih" manufacturer (gssoline-fueled vehicles only).

(AI The llPplicable I'esu\ls 10 be used in delermining' the exhaust emishiun ueterioration faclors for each engirw· oyslem comblnatiDn shall be:

(1) All v"lid e"hausl emission dota from the lesll required under § 86.000-26(8)(4) e"cepllhe zero-mile lesls. This shall in dude the officiallesl resulta. 08

delemlined in § 66.064-29 for IIlItesls conducted on all durabilily·data ,·chicle. or Ihe combination selec/ed under I 66.000-24(c) (including all vehicles elected 10 be operaled by Ihe m .. r.ufaclurer under I 66.086-24(c)(llliilJ.

12) All exhaust emis8ion dela from the tesls conducted beFore and after Ihe scheduled maintenance provided In I 66.000-25.

(3) All exhuust emission data from I.,sls required by maintenance approved under, 66.086-25. in those cases where Ihe Administrulor conditioned his appro"It! for Ihe perform'lI1ce of such muintcnHnce on the inclusion of such diltu in Ihe delerioralion fHctor culcululion.

(B) All uppliGublc exhau81 enllSblUn results shall be ploll"d ~9 n lunction of the mileage on II ... system. IOUllIh·d to Ihe nearest mile. and Ihe besl fit straighl lines. filled b)l the mill hod 01 le"81 squares. shall be dniwn throu!(h all Ihese dalu poinlli. 'fhl! interpolated 4.000- ulld 5O.000·1I11Ie points on this hllc musl he within the low-alhlud" sl'lIldllrds provided ill t 66 OO!'>-A or § 110.085-9. 88 !lpp!icubl~. or the dulu will not be ucuepluble lor uSo III

wlculation of a ~elllrlur"lioll ["dor. unless no applicable d"lu point· "xc,,,,ded the slandard An exlwust emission deterillralillll foetor .hull be o.lculated for ellch 1IIIIjllle·.y.It!"' combination a8 followb:

- 54 -

Federal Ra,thller I VIII. 48. No. 4 I Wedlwsdny, !unuory 7. 1981 I Prop()~lld RuleR 1921

F"ctnr f."'HllIfI' emil,"lonll 'nh~r'ItII"It~d In 5tI.llOO mil .. o dlvld .. d hy C"hRU" pmiRBionfl interpolAted to ".lXIO mih!",

These Interpolated value. shllll he rarrll'd Ollt to II minimum of four plac(,1 10 Ihe right of the decimal point he fore ,!i\-idinR nne by the olher to dctcnnlne the d"lrrlorlltion foctor. Tlt'e results .hllil I>e rounded to Ihree plilces to the riRhl of Ih" decimal point in accordnnrp wilh ASTM F. 29-67.

(CJ An evaporlltive emissions d"Icrlornlion foctor (Hilloline-fueled \·"hid"s onlYlahall be determined from II", I"stinR r:onducted "I dcocril>ed In J K(\.0I111-211~l\4)(i). for p.ach !"·lIporRI" .. "Illi •• ;on ramily-evaporatlv" emlsslo.1 conlrol .v.ll'm comhinalion to Indicht" Ih,' I'vap;>rll;ive emia.loo level lit 50.000 milt,o rodlllive to Iht· evaporllUve "Illis"ion ",vel at 4.()()O miles as follow., Farlur >= F.nt.,~)ratlve ,.ml"llon le\'(,1 At 5O,nnn

mileR minU8 the p.yolJuroli\'e ~mi!l,.lon It·\ p.1 HI 4.000 milolJ.

The f"dor shall be ".Inbll.h"d 10 a minimum of Iwo ploces 10 Ihe rillhl of Ih,' d"cimal.

liiHAI Thr. official exhausl-eml8aion 1,'.1 "'8uI18 for ellch emlsslon-duta ,·"hide 01 Ihl' 4.000-mile test poinl .hall III' multiplied by the "ppmpri .. le d""',;o,"lion fnctor: l'rovid",/: Thnl If II oi .. I",io'Rlinn faclnr as complll"d in ""mllruph (1I)(4)(1)(B) of this section Is h,s" Ihan one. Ihal dl'tertoration factor .hull he nne for Ihe purposes of this rara!!raph.

(11) The offici,,1 evaporative emission Il'st rl'oul18 (Jjosoline-flleled vehicles onl)'} ror "I .. ,h I'vnp*rntive emisslon­d,oI" ""hide al the 4,()(JO-mile t".t poinl sh,dl he ndjusled by nddilion of the <lI'l'mptiatp dpterlorillion faclor. 1'''''1 "If'd: That if .. d"tcriorHtion faclor '" wlllp,;I,," in pHruRrnph (1l)(4IliIlCl of this opelio" i. Ie •• Ihao zero, Ihal 011'1 I' .. i 0," liull f"dor shall be 2em for thl' I""VOSI'S of Ihis parograph.

(iiil The eml.sions to compare with IIII' slill1durd ohall bc the adjusted t,ntio.ions of parollraphs (0)(4)(11) (A) .mtllOI of thl8 sectioo for each emisslon­,1"1,, v"hicle Befnre uny emls810n val"e ,. ""mpor"d wilh Ihe Rlllndllrd. II sholl 101' relUnded, in accordance with ASTM E ~" ~;7. 10 twn signincnnt figures. The I "uoded emission vollies may nol "'''"cd Ihe ~IIIodard.

li\') Ev,'ry h'9t vphicle of ao eo~inc I.lfllil~' 11111.1 cOlllply wilh the exhausl . IlIissiPIl st.nHinrds. 89 determinnd in

1',II"!I'itph liI)HlIiiil or Ihis secUo", hd,)l'" ,w:\, \'phide in Ihut fumilv mAY ht' I ntlfl\·J . .

(, I h'~ry I",t VI-hide of lin 1·\·alltlL.lIi\"(~ ,'miRs-ioll fnmily mUlIt 'ClIllPI,\' with til£' p\'uporath-'f! f~mi5sion ~.'dlld,1fd. <I:> d(·1t·rmiIH·d in plttilJ.trHph

(IIII4I1ill) of this accllnn h.,rore IIny vl'hide In thlll family may be certified.

(b)(l) Paragruph (hI of Ihi8 sectioo applies to IIllhl·dtlly Iruck! and hURvy­duly .mgines.

12) The exhlluBI tloJ. fuel eVAporolive emission 8111ndArds of t 06.085-9. t 06.086-10. Rnd t 116.086-11. liS nppropnntl!. Apply to Ihe emlsalon. of Vl'hicl"8 or enaint's for Ihelr u8efullife.

(31 Since emission control efficienc), lI"n"rully d",;reoRes with the nccumul"tloo of 11111""118 on Ihe vehicle or engine, delerinrnlion faclOrl will be uRed in comhlnaUon with emllsioo-data Irsl results tlA Ihe basi. for dp.lerminlns cuml,tillnee with thl' slandurd •.

1411i1 P"roarnph (1))14) of thil section deacrlbe. Ihe proCl!dure for d"Iermlnina compliaoce of a new vchicle or engine with "XhHIIst emlR.ion 81l1nd8rds, b".ed on prelimin"ry deleriorotlon fadore 811pplied by the manufachirer. The procedure 11,,<t:rihl-d here 8holl be u.ed for Ihe first mod,,1 year for which the manufaclur"r opplit!8 for a certificate of conformily with Ihe applicable eml .. lon Ilandard. for nn enaine famlly-conlrol I)'stem comhinntion, and for the 8IICond model year os well if the crilnna of It 86.086-26 (b)(3) ond (cIl3) are met.

(ii) Separale prelimloary exhausl emi."ion d .. lenorotion faelors. delennined from leot. of vehiclel. engines. lub.)"Ilem •. or componenls conducted by the manufaclurer, .hall be supplied for I'ach r.nl!ine-S)'8Iem combinAUon. S"puru tc facIo,.. shall be I!atahlishrd for Ir"n8i'ml IIC, CO, and NO,.. Idle CO IlIn"flllne vuhlc"~1 and .. nalnel only), and exhaust parUculllle (dielellighl-duly lrucks and dl .. lel henvy-duly "nglnes only). For heavy­duly dielel engines. I"pnrole roctor. Ihnll al80 be eslahli.hed (or Ihe acceleration mode (deslgnaled a. "A"I. the 1II!lSing mode (dcsillflaled 01 "8"), and the penk opndly (de81I!nal .. d aa "C").

(HillA) For Irunslcnt HC, CO. ond NO., Idle CO (g8solinc vehiclel and enginea only), and exhaual particulale Idiespllillhl-duty Irllcks and diolel heavy-dUly enRin"~ only), Ihe official exh"u81 emissIon results for euch emisslon-dala vehicle al tho 4.000-mile ICBt poinl, or for each emission-data enaine 01 the 125 hOlll's leal polnl •• hall be IIdjusled by mulliplicaUon by Ihe appropriate delerioralion factors. However. if Ihe d"lerioralion f"elors supplied by the mnour"clllrer iA less Ihun one, il 8hnlll", one for Ih .. purpOAel of Ihis pflrHlIl'flph.

(Ill accelcrahon smllke I"A"I. IUllllinll omoke ("0"). find pellk smoke ("C"I. th" offidul exhau.t "mi •• ion re.ulls for pnt:h cmission-datH f~nf./:ine HI thp 125-hou, t('sl poinl .h"I1I", "diusled hy Ih.·

RlI,lilinn of lit" uppropriale dete,iurlltion fnclor. Howe"er, if Ihe d!'terioralion fuclor supplied by Ihe mnnufHctu",r is les8 then zero. It shall be zero fnr Ihe purposc. of Ihis parB!!rnph.

(iv) The emillion values 10 compare with the Itandards shall be the adjust~d emlRSlon values of paraaraph (hIl4Jtlii) of thl8 section roundl!d 10 t .... o Ilgnlficant figllreR In accordtln"e .... ilh ASTM E 29-67 for eoch emis.lon·dalll vehicle or enslne.

(5)(1) Paragraph (bH51 of Ihls secli,," delcribel the procedure for delemlintnll compliance of a nf'W v"hid .. or pnlline wilh ."hausl emissiun stRntla"I •. h"",,1 upon partial or full results 01 in,tI~" mileage accumulallon.

(Ii) Separale emiasion d"Il'rioralioll faclors .hall be determined fronl Ihl' emls.ion relult. collecled to dute from the durablllly-data vehicles or enllint·s In each enalno·sy,l"m combinAtion •. Separale factore Ihall be I'slahliqh"d for IrnnBienl HC. CO, and NOx, idle CU (gasoline \, .. hiclel and enRines only I, and exhaust pnrtlculale (dies('llighl­duty lruch and diesel heavy-duty .. nllinel onlyl. For hcovy-duly diesel enginel. IE'parate factors for smoke Ihall allO be eltahlished for the acceleration mode (deSignated 08 "A"I, the IURllinR mode (dellgnaled aA "B"I. ond Ihl! p .. "k opaclly (dealR"ated as "C"),

(A) The applicable relu". 10 he used In delennlnl", the deterioration faclore ror each combination shall bl-:

(l) The reaultl of Ihe emission I"slA conducted on lIaht-duty tnrcks durabtllly-dala vehicle. tlfh'r accumulallnll4.OIlO-mlle accordinR I" Ihe Durabilily Drivl", Schedule, ur un heuvy-dUly durobilily-daht ellRin" after accumulallnlll25 houre manuf"t;lur"r's dynamomeler .enrlce accumulatioo Ichedule. The mlleaae puinl fllr Ih"se re8ull, ,hell be laken to be 4.000 OIiles for Ihe pUfJlOl8 of Ihll .eclion_

(2) The ruull. of all emission 1t,.lo conducted on durabllily:dale vchiclP9 and elllline. dun", in-ule mileuRe accumulation, al required or permitted by 1 86.0II6-28(bI(5)(v) (lillhl-duly I,uchl or t 86.086--28(c)(5)(v) (heavy-duty enginat). except Iho.e ex"htded under 1 oo.~bl(t)(l(I) or I l1li.(186-28(I»(5I(vll) for lighl-duly trucks, or 1 86.086-Z5(b)(t)()ti) or t 116.0il6-ZlI{c)(5J(vil) for heavy-dUly ensines. Thl! mileage poInts for hewvy.duly ',"gine reBults sholl be adl!llllld by Ih .. "ddiliun of 4.000 milel at Ihe lima uf dctf'fiOrallQn raclor calclllllliull.

(I'll All applicable e~h"u8t emi •• i"n re9ulls shall be plotted as a lunction of accumulated in-use milel\8e. SI'p"rtlle plots Ih,,11 be made fur fluch duruhilily dala \'ehlcle or en!!ino. t\1I1I'u~1 "IU""'9 ro'~reoaion Iinl's plu8 hillh lIIi"'UIl" vulul"

- 55 -

1922 Federal Kegisler I Vol. 46. No 4 I Wedn.·,ddv. jilnu<lry 7, 11181 I Proposed Rules

lind luw md"'Iwt· vulul'. rc."Uhlf( 'rum Ihl' I"IN.I·,I" .... 01 p""'Hrul,h (hl(:.l.h.1I II.· .huwn un Ihmk. I'kJt •.

ICll1llkh,rlor .. hon faclorl lor •• ch \ "hu.l" IIr ""11'"" lor IrulUI;enl IIC. CO, uhd NOl<, for idle CO (lIaaoline-fuekd \ "hid". IIhd enslnea ooly), and exluoual PoIfli,:uIHlc (lil/bl-dUIY diael !rucka and h"iI\'y-,h,l} dint,j "n8ines only, dall be cilkulaled by dividing the hip I1Ilielige ~ullle 0' parasraph (bK5Itii)(E) by the luw milciJlIV value of parallraph (h)(5)(ii)(U). '" f"ctor I ... thliS one Ma" h" a .. 1 equal 10 QIIl!.

(Z' DelerlOlahon facton beec:h I", .. vy-duly diesel enlline for IlIc"It'ralion ... ok~ (""'"). IUllllinIi _oke ("0"). lind " .. uk .moke ("e-'" thuD be "alwlalcd by sublractlng Ihe low 'lIil""1I6 >Hlue ofparall"aph (b1(51tIiKU) /rum Ihe hil/It mileage "./U& 01 1'."uHruph fbIi5Ifii)(E). '" nf'\lallve Lw:lor ,h,,11 be .'" "'luiol 10 aero.

fI}1 Tho: luw mileHlle value wI! be IJas"d "I'<'" <ill applicable dolla for 1l,i1euM" "rior 10 tha acillal chanse poinl fur 'my eut!rnlll aflerlrealmenl derice kRoO "alalysl or particulale lrap­u~idi1."r.). The IM,sl fil .ll1lighlline ahllU I", filkdlo Ihi. dala by Ihe m~ of I""al aquar" •. The low mnease "luee .h,,11 bf, Ihe value of Ihi. Iino in'''rpolillt!d 10 Ihe 4.()()(}.mile poin!.

(EI The high mile,,/IC v.l"e ah.U IJot ,,,,\Culnl,,d .. a/ollowa:

(I) Prior 10 !he actu.1 cba"88 for any ".It,lllill "flerlr" .. lmenl de"ice, the high n.il""II" valll~' shall be lhe larger of Ihe \".10"," ,.., ... lIi"lI 'rom Ih" followins Iwo nH'thU(l~. I

('1 Th" ht!lll fit .'rllil/hlline filled by lilt! lII ... hod 01lh81 aqllu6¥ 10 Ihe "ppl,,; .. IoI., .Idle .. Ild cXlrapolllled lor lII"'rpoi"l~d if Ihe ,"-use mil"."" '''''u","I"lion ia cumpl"te) 10 .he high ,"01",'11" puint. The h.gh mileage puinl ,h.dl b" eilhel' Ihe uselullil" or" 1I111l!")j" which rep...,""n'. II poinl 50 I"" """l "I Ih .. uaeful hf .. pasl Ihe culTenl ."d",,~.,. whi(;h"""r is smaller.

(/I) Th .. h'Rhel1 Ol!lhY dHla poinla lor ,,\ "rllg" 0/..,0,,11. i' Ihe mnlllliadurer ","ulu,;\ed IlIliltiple 'csll a' CII(;h poinl) \\ 11II:h I! ,,-.!Cd Iwo alandard erron a' Ihe ",Iimal!! I.um Ihl! beat iii .'raiahl line fill .. d IIY Ihe nwlh"d of IClIsl squares 10 th .. "pplu.,lIlc dJla.

1-'1 A/tl'r Ihe IIcltwl (boll~c 0' any ",Iemal "1I,,rl,,· .. ln ... nl device. In Ihe 1.1'" wh ... " IIIIIJI .11111 .pplh:al.lc mili~uH" 10-.1 I.uinl ""." 1111 .. , Ihe ch.IIIKe. tho \ .illIf' 1111 h\. I'I.I~.! of " .. hws) ahtdl be I "lllp.HI',! tal Ilk(! vulut! Dllhe t.w .. t fil ·.lloIIMhl h"f! of 1"''''Wlllm Ib)(5Ilii)(O) '" 11"'111.1.,10'') I" Ih"l lIIilell!!t!. IIlhe \ .. 10 .. Ilir "~"fI'~" of ~ .. luc~1 full. b"l"w Ih .. I"", il .10.,11 nol I", u ... d In II", ,.,lI:ullllio"o, untl Ih,' hiMl, mil.'al!" vMI"" ,11I11Il>~ .1' .1,·II.'rlllin,'.] in • .,hparHKnoph

(n 1I1IOv,' U IlUl ,·"Iutt (or .f\f~rll'fI' uf \ .. luuH) full. on ur Mhu"., tho hne. Ihl' d .. liI I .... Ihu 1 .. 0' I'uillt Kflllr Ibn chuliHe "I' Ihe c .Iemlll .. fl.'rl",ulmcnl de"k-e shall be Hdd"d lu lho dala used in 8ubparagraph {I)lIbo\'e and Ihe high lIIileuge val .... recompuled by Ihe procedure "f 8ub(J8rllgrnph (1). In Ihi. ellae, the luw mileage vulue of purogreph (bHS)(iiHD) shullalao bt!' recak:ulaled bosed upon Inclusion 0' the udditionHI dala

(.1) Aller lhe ftcluel change of any e"lcm"laftert",.,lmenl device, in Ihe eu"e where two Of more appUceble d .. la BhaU be di"ided into Iwo let •. 11t& fin. 8,,1 shull include .. II dul. for mileage pointe prior 10 tho chaRl/e point. The aecond HI .h.llll1dud .. all dU11I for mil ..... se point ... /ler the change poill'. The procedure o/sohsection (tlabovo ohall b. perfonJll}d a"raratcly for each sci 0/ ddla_ The "clull histo mileage ~"Iu ... hull be ItHiI from whIchever dala ."t ~io·ld. the h.gher \'nlue.

(I') The alngl" In-uOP. deterioration Idc'or for ouch enBin .. ramlly-walrol sy.lem combinillion 101' e .. ch of Irunsl"nIIIC. CO. and NO" Idle CO (s.'80Iin" vehIcle. lint! engine. onlyl. txlUlusl par1iculal~9 (dil!seilltlhi-duty Irucks Hnd dlc!JcI heavy-duly ensines onlr) lind the IIccderltlion. lugging IInu pCllk cdpnclty amoke mode. (he8vy-duIY di""cl enKines). shull be the arithmellc tnl!on 01 '''e corresponding factors for ca(;h clIMlDe aa dr.lennincd hi pltntgrop/l (uIl5)liiIlCJ 0' this .eclion.

(iiilf"') For 1"lIlsi"nl He. co. 811d

NO •. idle CO (gasoline vehicles and engines ohlyl, lind eXhO\l8\ particulale (diesel "lIht-dllly Iruck. and die.,,1 IIclI>y-u"ly engines only), Ihe offici"l exhaust emission re8ults for lMt:b erni •. ,ioll-dllill vchlde or engine III Ihe 4.fKIO·mil" or 125 hour lesl point shall I,., udjush'cl hy llIullipli"Htion by tho uppropriille d(~lerjlJrdlJon factor.

IU) Fu. ucedl·rallOll smok" (oOA oO ). 11III!!ing .rnokl' f"n",. lind p~ak smo~c (oOCoO). Ih~ nff;';ial ."hllll.1 emi.sion fl~sllh:; for f'lIch prnission-dllta engine ul Ihe 1:!5 hour I"st pllint shull be "djush,d hJl Ihe "ddirion of Ihe upprop.iule dclerioriillion factor.

livl The emis.ion v"l"es 10 compa,,' wilh Ihe .Iandunls .hull be Ih" adj,,"teJ elllissiun volues u/ pllfllgraph (bll4)(iiiJ of this !!Iectinn rOllllllt·d to two 8i~nifi'.""1 fig",,'" in flccorduncu w,lh ASTM E 2~~17 IIIr ",,,;)' ~mi55ion-dalil \'ehidn or t~nHlIll'

(fi)li' PUfi'~IIII.h (hIlB) o/.hls "",:lion ,h!~(;rihl'~ the pi'll{ l·JlIH' rur tlt!lerrnilltng (;ompHunG" of H ne'" Iighl-dlllY Ir<o"l.. with fuel ~\.'ap()r,,'i\·1! l!m.i!:lN'ion

tiolunddrrltl Tht' prlll'pdliru Jf~filcrtlJl'd hele .h"I1I,,' ""'Ii /0' nil ""hid"s in "II mudt·1 ~·C(ir5.

(ii) Thfl mlinulRclu'lIr shall """'I'II,in,'. 1",",,£1 un 11I.lIn/l dIlH,:rlllc,1 III IIIII.OIMI--21Ib)(4)(iil. lind .ol'ply an eVill,urllli"" emissiun delerioralion faclor for "Gh evaporative emission family­e"ilpot'llliv8 emission controlsy.le", comblnalion. The faclor shall be calculated by loblraclinRthe emission level 014.000 milL'" from Ihe emil.iun level otl the tI""fullife point.

(iii) The officiul ev"porahve emission Icsl result. for eltCh lJVaporulive emi"sion-dala vehir.\e lit the 4.000-mile lest poinl shall be adjusted by Ihe uddilion of Ihe appropriate deleriuruhun ruclor. Howevet'. i/lhe delerioru.iun f"elor supplied by tho manu'acluret i. Ie •• Ihan :rero. It ahsll be zero for Ih" pllrpo~e8 of this psrltgroph.

Ilv) The emll.ion value to compare with the stundard •• hall b.. the adjllsled emission "a1 .... of paragraph 11»(6)(i;;) of Ihis section rounded 10 Iwo lignific"nl figures in IIccordunce wilh "'STM E Z9-117 for eacll aIIMJIOrahva D.tiaaion-dala v"hide.

(7) Every le81 vehicle or ehl/ine 01 &n engine family moal comply with aU a ppliea ble IIIWIdarda, a. de.ermlned in p"rag. IbX4l1iv) 01' (bI(5)(iv) nnd pllrugraph (bite) of Ibis IN!clion, before ilny vehicle 01' I!Jl(!iDe in thai family will he c<'rlified.

(ClIRellenledl (2HBI~odl 3. The foUowlngsecliona arc added 10

the .uble of conlenls undcr Subpart N.

Subpaot N-£miaaion RegtMllona lor New ~188Ied and DIHeI He.vy-Outy EngInee; Ga.oua end Partlculille &DI ..... Only) bhaust T .. t Procedur ..

Sr', &dJUl-OO SWp<.; ~rl'lk .. loili'y. Hb 1302-&J DefinHwllS. 00.1 :to:J -.at) AhhreviHtions. fill l.m4-M Section oomherinu: cOII!llnu:lhll1. U(l,IJm,- U6 Intruductinn; strueilire of

Io>llLpart lltl.lJ06-lll ~;quip"'enl "'"oUred .nol

8peti!icaliou; """n,,cw. 1Il .. IJIXI-. (Reservedl Hti. DOI-8fl Ilynamomclur and cn,glue

C'iuipnWlll ivcdHc.ahonl. Uh.l:m9-·66 £xlullu.it ";tla :tOiUlll;Ulg "sllh'm,

g.lso1im··ruclt·d t'n~il"~s l~h l:ihl--Hd l-:"hu~.:~! NtiS Bunll'lillg ,IUd

n.nnlvlinll sytolem.: rlit!sell"n,.;illf"s Uti 1.'1 14t6 ExhftU5t gas UOi!)yliCf'll III) "h'lU;

CVS bU8 ••• ple. UU,)ji*z--88 W.~8hirlltd'dmhcr(oIIUllhll ... nd

micro~,.um. bald.nct! IpccifH;nti(lfUii l~i,l:Jl;~Jt, FHd spl'(:ifkaIlUUM.

IU1 1:IH--/K1 A,,~i,)h ... II~"".' "'1.IJ15-lkl IIW.c,,, cui H41.1.Jl6-Uti Calilnuiloll.l, ffi'IPH:lh); dud

(JVcr\"lcw. tkl1317~ IRu".,,,,·")

- 56 -

Fedoral Real.ler I Vol. 46. No. 4 I Weunl'sday. /anUllrr 7. 1981 I Propo81!d RU"~8 1923

1111.1.'1_ F.nldne dynAmometp.t cHllb,otion •.

HlI131_ CVS c8l1b,alton. 811.1320-88 CIII meier or now

In,lrum"nl.lIon colih,alion. purtleul.,. nWB.urrment.

Hl1.1321'- lIydmcarbnn anHlyzcr. (,1~lihrA1Ion.

1111 1322'- CArbon monoxide .. noly.er cahhnh<'n.

IM).1323-80 O~ld8. of nltrolen analyzer cnfibralion.

IVl1324.- CHrbon dloxld" anHIY"'r calibration.

/IfIuz:>-a IRe."",edl Hf\ 1J~~ (,~Hbr8ti()n of othl" "Quil'm"nt. tt(. 13'::--M En"lnp dynllmomt"'lrr Ic~t

fJf'\H:(ldurp,; overvh·w. "0 IJ~K_ IK" •• rndl ... ' 1.I~~1IIl IR ••• rvrcfl ~I\ UJH-..(M\ '1'£,,,1 "equt"IIf~f'; If>nprnl

n·tJllin·ml'nl •. 'U' 1:J31-80 IKr • .,vp.dl IWI 1 332·~ EnNlne mnl' prnc.dure •. un J:J:13-<16 Trnmlient Il'lIt cycle 8pn~r .. tinn Wi 1 :1:14-86 PT'I~· tel. engine and

tlVTlilmOOlrll'r prepurulion. "'0 L1:1~)-·OO Optional fon;rd f'n~tne cool-

down procedure. nil LUfi..-..06 Engine 81arUI'IM and rea'MUn". /\h 1117-88 F.nMine dynAmompter Ip.' nm. Rh IJJ~ Eml.810n mrHlurt'menl Rcrufat:\, "Ii 1:1:19-88 Ui£"scl particulAte Oller han,llini

Hnd welMhing. '~I 1340--116 ExhAuSI sAmple .nalysl •. !I" 1J41-M T .. I cycle vHUdftlion criteria. 1'I(11J42-86 Cnlculationfl: f"XhAuRt r.ml •• iuns !MI1343-l18 IR .. en·edl tNi 1344-86 Infllnnalion rt'quimd.

Subpart N-EmlNlon RegutIIttoM for New Gaeollne-Fueled and DI .... Heavy-Duty Englnea; 0.-. 8nCI Partlculat. (DIe .... Only) E.h ..... T ••• Procedu ....

4. i\ new § 86.1301-00 is added and ,.'.,d. A9 follows:

§ ".1301.... Scope; applkllYlly. This subpart contain811aseou9

"minion tcst procedures for gosoline. fllpl",1 and the go.eou. and particulple ,'miqsion Ic.~ procedure for heAvy.duly dic.,·1 "nMir", •. It npplle8 to 1988 and lote model yeArs.

5. A new § 86.1302-86 is Addcd and ,,,ad. "" foIlOlw.:

§ 1111.1302-811 o.llnll_ Th,' defini:ion. in t 86.084-2 Rpply 10

Ihi. s"hpRrt. f\ A npw § 80.1303-86 i. a,lded Rnd

I r·.III~ us fnllow9:

! 1111. '303-8' AbbreYlatlonL rhp alohr!'\'iAlion8 in 186.0114-3 apply

to IIIIN ~i.lbpal t. 7. /\ IlI'W § 8f1.1304-811Is add.·" and

I,·ad .... h,lIows:

! 86. 1304-16 Secllon numbering; construction.

1<11 Th. mo,lel yenr of iniliAI q'I'Ii""hhly is ilHlicHled by Ihe section

number. The Iwo <li1l115 fol/oWinr Ihe hyphl'n de.illnnle the firRI mode yellr for which 8 lection i, efreclh·c. 1\ section remalnl effective unlll superseded.

Ex......, !MH:Uon I M.1311-416 Ippll,," '0 Ihe 1_ Illd I"b.rqu~nl m .... el yurl unlil I"""nelled. If I lecllon 11lII.13I1_ II promul,.ted II would I.k. efT.ct ..... Innlna .. ith .hPo 1_ model year I RII.1311"- would apply to inodd Yft8", 1_ Ihroullh 11181.

(bJ A .rctlon reference withoul • mod .. 1 vpar luffix refer. 10 Ihe lectlon applioeble fot Ih .. approprlale model year.

(cl Unle •• Indica led. all provl.ion. In thi5 Auhp.rl npply 10 holh IIlIloline. fuell'd Rnd di .... ·1 h"nvy-duly enlllne •.

8. A npw I 00. uo~ I. add .. d and n·Rd ... I follows:

, .. ,...... lntroductlOft; """"- Of ......,.. (n) Thll lubpart de.crlbel the

equipml!nl requircd and the procedure. to follow In order 10 pl'rform exhault emlNion le8tl on gBloline-fuel.d and dipsel heavy-duly enlline •. Subparl A lei. forth Ihe teating requirement. and 1"11 Inlerval. necessary 10 comply wllh forA certlRcalion procedure ..

(bl Four 10picR otf' addre.led In Ihl. subpart. Sedions 86.1306-416 Ihrough 86. 131 !HIlI leI forlh lpeclficallon. and equipment requirement.: 1188.131648 throullh 116.1326-86 dilcu" calibration methods and frequency: tell procedu," are Ii.ted In II 86.1J27~ Ihrouah 86_1341"" calculation formula, are found In 186.1342-86: dala requlremenlS nre found In I 86.1344-86.

!I. A new t 86.1300-8II10 added Rnd reads a. follows:

, ... , ...... EquIpmant ..... 8ftC1 epecIllcatl." .. CMIf'VIew.

This subp~rt contAins procedure, for exhAusl emls810ns lests on diesel or RRsoline ·fueled heavy·duty enlllne •. Equipm~nl required Hnd IpecificRllonl are 81 follows:

(al E.dolls/em;gs;on le.91.'. All englnel ~ubjecl 10 Ihl. lubparl ara Ie. led for exhAust "minion •. Dlelel and galoline-fueled engine. are lested identically with the excepllon of hvdrocarbon measurements: dle.el e~llines require 8 heot"d hydrocarbon detector. 186.1310-86. Necessary equipment and specification. appear In "PC lions 86.1308-1l6Ihrough 00.1311-88.

(b) 1>"e/. ano/rhea/sos. nnd ell.llinc rJC1e specifiratiolls. FIU'I apeclncatlons for pxhollsl emission letting are 'prc,fied in 1116.1313-00. Analytical gRses art' spedfied in I 88.3414-«1. The FoPA hell\'y-duly Iransl"nl engines cycll" for URe In exhRu.1 .. ·.ling are descrihed

in I 00.1333-811 and ",H,dried in Appendix I.

10. A new t 86.1307-88 11,,,111,'" "n,1 relerved as fu/luws:

• ... '307.... IIleMrftC1l 11. A new I 00.13()6...86 II ,,",Ipd lind

",,"da as follows:

t ... ,...... Dynamomeler and engine ... Ip_nl apactllcattonL

la) Engine dynamomeler. The enRin .. d)'namom"let IYllem musl be ""pabl .. of controllinA "nlll"" tOtquI! .lIul rpm .imultancouslv OVl!r Iransienl !:vele. The Irllnl","1 iorqul! and rpm .chedul.·. delcrlbed in I H6.13:JJ-M and 'pedfil'll Appendl" Ilf and II) mUlt be f"lIow .. " within the accuracy requirement. ,pN:ified In I 86.1341-811 In .. ddilion II) thl'se Bl!neral requlremenl •. Ih .. dynamometer read Ollt lind rp.lld out alAnal1 for speed and lorque Ihall me~1 Ihe following occuracy Ipedficlliionl:

It) Engine speed shall be Accurale tn within 2 percent of polnl at all .pef'd •.

121 Engine torqup 01 Ihe nywh .. rI.hnll b. Bccurale 10 within 3 ""rcf'''t of poinl 81 all torque ..,ttlnll8 Above 10 pf'l'cenl of ful/·scole of the torque measurinll de ... ice. Below 10 percent of full-scal., Ihe torque measllrlnl) device 8/11111 ha ..... an Accuracy of:

(11 :t:2.5 f1Abs .. if the full Icnle \'8lup II 550 ft.-Ihi. or Ie ...

Iill :t:& n.-Ib •.. If Ihe full 81:81 .. vAI"e i. 1050 ft.·lhI. or Ie ...

IliI) :tID ft.-Ibl .• lf the full 11'.8 Ie valllP I. life. tar Ihan 1050 ft.·lbl.

(3) Option: IntemRI dynamomtp.r alsnal, (I.e .. armalure cUlTent. p.lc.) mHy be uled for lorque mealuremenl provided thalli can he Ihown Ihul Ihe trul! enllne nywheel torqUf' duringthp. teat cycle conforms 10 the It'll cycle value. ft, lpetlned In 1118.1l3J-86. And if Ihe technique Is approved In adwtnr:(' by Ihl! Admlnlslralor. The niinimum requirement for the Admlni.trHlnr'. approval would Include compenlation for Incre.sed or decreRled nywheel lorque due to the armature (nertio durinll accelerallons Rnd dec:eh'rallonl In thp. tClt cycle. F.nglneerlng dala And compariBon lelt result. mayho telluire,!.

Ibl eye/I! yerif;cal;o" eql/;(I""'''' In order to verify thet the le.1 cn~inl' hu. followfd the tell cycle correl'II)·. Ihe dynamometer read oul sll"al. for .p .... ., lind torque must be colleClrd in A

manner Ihllt allows a slatistic .. 1 correlation bel wren Ihe lelual !'nginr pl!rformance and Ih" le,l cyde (S .. e 11tII·1341~). Normllily Ihis wlleetion proCf''' would Involve' cpnv"rsinn of IInalog dynamometer .llIIIpls inlo dlgi',,1 valu .. s for storage in 1\ computer. Thc conversion of dvnamomeler rl''''' Ollt '·Rlu., Into voh;r5 Icnmpul .. r rtf IIlhr.r)

- 57 -

lW Federal ReKialer I Vol. 4fl. Nu. 4 I Weull"ud"y. Junuury 7. 19111 I Proposed Rules

11",1 .. ..., u""d 10 e" .. IWlI" Ih .. " .. Iidily of ~lIgin" 1"" lormunce In relalion 10 the Icat (;)'d" .hull be performed in 8

manner 8\1<:" Ihut: 11) Sp"ed vlllues used lor cycle

evuludthJn are ilccur.te to wilhin 2 ,,,, .. :enl 01 Ihe dynjlmOmelilf speed read out vulul!.

(2) Ellgllle flywheel lor4ue villues used for cycle evaluution ore accurate 10 wilhin J percenl of Ihe dynamometer lorque r""d oul v"lu8.

Ie) Option: For 80me .yalemall mlly L" more convenient to combine lhe lol",ancea in p .. ragrapb. (at and (bt· This 18 permit led if the root mean 1qWlJ'8

method IRMS) i. uled. 'l'be RMS VBI,," would Ilwn refer 10 ac:c:ur4lcy In rellilillnihip 10 true .,.1l1li.

It) Speed values "IIIICI r .... cycle ev"lwllion sha" be aecur"le 10 willllll 2.8 percenl of Ime value.

(:l) ~:Ill!ine flywbcellorque v .. l"e uoed lor cyde t!Vlllu .. Uon ab .. U be Bccur .. le 10 wilhin ".2 percenl of lrue VIIlue.

(d) Spl! • .'d calibrolioll t1quJPullJnl. A IJO.lflolb (Dr area'e,) wheel In c:omLinlllilln witb a comDlon mode rtlleclion (11H!Uency counler il wnsidercd .. n IIbsolulo, .Iand.ord rot '''Igllle or dYWlmomeler Ip""d.

Ie) Torquu calJbrulion equipmunt. Two ",!;hni!ju"s ure allowed [or lorquo ~ahLI· .. hon. Aiternllle techniques 01"1 he used if shown to 00 equi~a.1enl. and if prior IIpproval is oblaiDlld from lhe Administralor.

II) '1'1", lever·llrm dead-welsht k< hni'III,·.involves Ihe pla.:emenl of ~nuwn wuighls II known disldnr.e flOm II", cenlt, .. of rolution of the lorqutl " .... 'Sllflllll dev,ce. The equipment 11·{PIIl.·J i6;

II) Cu/JiJI'Qtwll ... eiSM •. A luinimunl of Ii ""hIH ulion ...,cighl. lor each rUJl8e of hlr41.U' nwa1'l1nng devi.ce uled U[U

""!jui"'d Th" WCI!!hl. musl Le "PIHII,,,,",tdy equally "".II;ed alltl cueh 11Il1:-' I,.,.! ,H:(;uriJh: to Oob percent of N"l<ulI.d UUf""U of Stundard weighla. l..,hor.<I • .ri"8 100;aled in fureign counlrie. llIa~ c ... lif~ c«hLorllfiun weightlllO lucal go'\,'(!rlll1h'nt bureau atano.ctrdlt. C,·rli[ ... , I,on 01 weighl uccura"y hy olalf! ).:IJ\ l'IIIIIIt'llt nUlt~all of We'Hhla Clod M".,."rl.·' io uCI;.·pldble. Erred. of "h.II,g,·. 111111'.1\ ,Iulionul cunstanl III Ihe lI'st blh' lil.I}' he ur:t:uwllt~d lor if dC»ln~,L

tli} A 1L'\'ur ,urn with .t Illlilimum kllglh ,d':!4 iHChc8. TIll! lHstuu(;c £10111

IIIe' (I HII r uf Ihe .~Ila'"c tOrlllJC 1111'.I:1Uh'llit!Ut OC\'ICt! to the point uf

'" i~hl .I""he""on ahall b~ UCCllrlllc 'u '''Iliun II (HU illt.iws. Thu urm must b~ II.d,lIl1 ~·d IH' Ihe hllllHIOM tonJuc uf the .1I1111H11~1 Ut' ~J1u\' .. 'n Within ~_ 0,1 fl.-U.s.

t!) TIll' 11 illl!Jft.~r h:t:hni"ju,~ IIIVUh.,C~ th~ 11"'1' ui .1 l:l.I:,lt'r luud ,-cll wllh a methud III IU.U.ldlg tl'~II.tll~ hytlrulIlll:) 11m lunpw

m" ... ow-illl! deviCf'. or Dlaaler unilihal upphe8 a known rorce 10 l'lle lorqutl m""8uring de, ice Lused on pi¥ton IIrell alld presaure. The equipmenl required ia:

(i) A mu.kr load LI·llnr rurce "pplie"I,,'n 1",,/ Iltul musl Le ~alit.r"lcd al ea!:h lest .... ·'ghl spedried ill pllraw;'ph ("}Illll) or Ihis .eclion wilh known w.,,~hls Irdwu!;!" 10 wilh,n 0.1 percenl of NllS wci!!hls. The p(ovi~i(jn 011 Iflu:t!ullllily in (e)(1)(i) IIpply III Ihis section. The o,·er • .l1 accuracy of Ih" culibrnfion curve of torque applied In Ihe engine torque aensof liS detennincd by Ihe mllster unil • .hall be within U.S pcrclInl of lrue \aloe. Below to purcenl of full tcal .. of Ihe muler unil Ihe calibr.Uon corve of lorque Hpplicd 10 the eJl8ine lorque ."no"l' shall be IIccliral. '0:

(A)! 0.5 II ·Ib.,. of Inou value if full .calt: valu., is ~;.o h.·lbs. 11( kill.

(0) .~ 1.0 ft.-IbM. of Iru" vlllue If full scul" "Hille i. 1O,'it} 11·lh. or le'B.

lr:) .t 2.0 ft.·I\,.. of lrue valuc If full 6cule value Is grellier than 1060 fI.-Ih •.

(ill A lever .. rm wilh " minimum lenglh of Z4 Inche •. The di.tonce rrom the cenler of Ihe Mlgine 10NI00 mea.uring device 10 Ihe poinl of fon; .. m" ... uremenl or lIpplir:~lion .hall be accurule 10 within 0.010 Im:h" •. Th" arm musl be LalKllced or Ihe blfllllir'lt 1",'1ue of the arm Olusl he known within ±o.t ft.-lb •.

fiii) Tran.fer of cllhbralion or apan from a dynamomeler "case" lorque value 10 Ihe e"Rinl! flywheellorque meaourinll de~lCe i. p ... milled only under .Iaiie or sleady stu Ie condlliolls.

(3) Olher luchniquHs may be u.ed If shown 10 be "'Iuivllleni aod if approved Ly Ihe Admin,stralor.

12. A new § Iltl. 1:11)9.·1111 is added lind fI~ad8 itS follows:

§ 80.1309-86 exh_t g .. aampIIng ayatem; llaaDUne-fueled engine ..

(alll) GeIl,·ruI. The c",hau.t ga. .""'phn!! 8y.t"rn i. dealgncd 10 me".orc Ihe lIu" mas. emissions of cllI!ine ,·xh .. u.l. In I~"! CVS coneepl of nW<lKurin8 nUtS8 emisliions, two I:lIndilJun. must he utislietl: Ih" lul.d vulume 01 Ihe mixlu.e of c"hau.1 lind dilution air must he Ineasurcu. and a clIlllInullu.ly pl'lIp"rl,uned ."mple of vollll1le l11u.1 Lo" coll"ch,d fur IInulyo; •. t\1.ISll cmitu"iull!-l dfU dclt;nntncd rrum tht! r;. •• ln,PI.· CnllLt'ulioJtion und tulul nuw u\lcr Llw h:!iL IhT11H1. 'lilt! ,,"mpling Ulul cunhnuuu!i iIIuh.llysi8 syslclll 811ceifitHJ in § &1.1310-lI0 lor dic5cl "'IHilleS IIIUY be u."d IUf le.I'''~ g .. sulinc-ruded enginl!s if Ihe ",yslclH~ Ilwd <111 of the n~quircmcnts lur Huch 8y9((~nH. ItS

"lJC<:jf,ed in Ih .. Su"p"rt. t~l J'u::ntn-I' d'~Jlltlt:f.:lIIt!lIt /lUJJJP· The

Ill)hi II \ t' dl ~ pl.1 Ct -llll' n t IHIIIl p---··\,;on~ tan t

"Olllnol! .umpl"r (PUP-CVS). ~'III'"'' NllU-l. 8l1tisfie. Ihe firsl condition Ly melering al 1\ conslanl lemperature an,l prtlssure Ihroullh Ihe pump. The 10lul volume is measured by counting Ih" revolullon6 mad" hy Ihe calibraled posilive displacemenl pump. Th .. proportional s"mple is achi"ved \Jy .amphng "I u conslanl flow ,·ale. IIIl.L_cooa __



















i iii Ii ! -< c ...

U1 00


-110 j • ~ :"" ... I ... -l

il! I! i I I I

:1 ... tl

- 59 -

1926 Federal Regi&ter I Vol. 46. No, 4 I Wednesd"y. Junullry 7. 1981 I Proposed Rules

PI C,il" "I JlOH' ,'(,lIluli, Th., uIWC.,tHHl tI.- IIH~ Ll'lhcal nU\\' \"enlw-i­u",slilnl ,,,I,,m,, ... mpl,., (CFV-CVS), .·lgUf(~ I\;Uh"':!. is Ihl!wd upon the JH in(.ipll·~ of fluul d\"nillnics HSSW:iilh·d

"ilh nlill.d II"\\,, '1'1i" C\(F s),slcm i. ,.umnuml~ 1:.III,·tI i.I (:ol1~lunt \;olume ti}'sll'''' (C\'SI ""ell Ihollllh Ihe now ,'ari"., II ",u"ld he more prop"" 10 cull Ihe crilio:ul fIuw ""nluri ICFV) 5)'81"10 6

(:unstunt prupurtiun sumpling sysh!m since pruporllollul .ampling IhroughuIII "'0\1"""'''''' ,'.cur8ion. is mninlilined Ly IIS1' of it 511litll CFV in Ihe .IImple Iinl!, The v.triablt, mi~llIft! flow rule is nlilinlitilWd III SUllie ,'"Iodly, whiGh is inl','rsely prupurlionullo Ih" sqllllre rool uf II", lI"s "'mperijl"re. lind is I;umpulcd "unlintluu&I), Since Ihe pre.sure Itnd lempt'[ature drc t~e sume ilt hnth I'"nlllri IlIlels, ihe sumple volume i& Jll'Uporliunal ,,, Ihe 'ull1l volum(', .'LUNG COOl 'r.60-21-"




-.0 (OPTIONAL) 1;") "' ) "'j



-, TO ,---.1,,- DILUTION AIR











~- -=11 ~I .......... 1.


I /_~



....... ---

t :11 , . ..

< :. $ :z 9 ...

il; .. c-:J .. .. 0-

r '-~ ; . c I • i~ ~ .. I -"I '8 :A ,. 0-

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... e


- 61 -

1928 r .. deral Rn"i.ler I Vol. 46, No ... I Wr.dnl!tiJIlY. illnuory 7, 1981 I Propoaed Rule. y.

(41 1>11",1' .pl,.",s. Olher &amplins u"d/ur an~I}'''c,,1 8yslems Including Ihe 9\'81"m5 de~cribed in t 86.131~ for d'iesel enllllles may be used if shown 10 ~ icld equivalenl re&ull., and if approved in advlln<:e by the Administrator.

(hi Compollrlll cfdcriptio/l. POlL (.'1'5. The I'OP-CVS. Fisure NM-t, (;Un~1S18 uf a d.lulion air filter and mi"ing assembly, helll exchanser. positive displacemenl pump, aampllna &\'slem. and a&socialed valve •. preasure ,,'nd lemperulure 8enlon, The PDP-CVS &hull cunform 10 Ihe followin8 r{~quirementll:

II) Sialic prlll&Ure \'ariullon. at the 1,lIll'ipc(>1 of the engine lhull remain "ilh," r 5 inches of waler (t.2 kPa' of Ihe SIHlic pressure varllliion. nll,aaure<i durinM a li)'nllmumeter eniline cycle with IIll mn'h,clion to Ihe tailpipe(s" (S,lIllPlonll syslems. capuble of mainl"ininllihe stalic pressure 10 within ! 1 "H:h uf w"lI!r (0.25 kPa) will be used

loy Ihe Adlllinisirator if II wrillen requeat .uh.lanli .. te. tho need fur this cloler lolt-rdncc·l

(2) The ga. mi"lure It'mperiliure, nll'i1sured at a poinl Immediulely ah .... d .. r Ihe pusitivII displacement pump, MIIII I", wilhln ±lo·F (5.6· CJ of Ihe de~isned .. ,,,'ralin8 lemperature 81 the atart of 'he "'sl. l'he dcsignLod opcralins "''''\lerlilurc may be estimaled from the 1l1''''i1lle opcralinlllcmperuiure from &i'lIIlur tesl •. The 8'U mix lure "'mp"raillre v .. riulion (ufler the heat ",chans.,,) during Ihe entire lesl .hall be limiled 10,1. 10"F (5.6· CJ from iI. v"h", III Ihe stllrt of Ihe leat. n,., 1t'lIIl",raturc meliaurinll8Yltcm 8hull 1l;1\'t~ un HCCUf!U:Y and precision of .1.2'" F (I I CJ.

(:1) 1'10" I'fUSSUfC 8"1111'" .hall h"\'e an au:u'ilC)' and p"";;si,,n uf .t. Jnun "II (ll .• kl'u ,.

I~I Tlop l1"w c .. padly of II", CVS 8hllll ht· lar~e ,'nouNh to eliminate Willer n1lulen~utiun in the sy.trm.

(51 Sample co'kcliun b"lI" fur lhluliun IIi. and ,,,h,,,,., 8I1mpl". shall I)/! ""Hrd,'nl bize bl) "s nol lu impcde tiitl1lJ)lc nuw.

Ie) CUtlip. l!tt"/1! descriptiOJl. CF\'­(.', 'S. Ttll! CFV -CVS, FI811re NM-2 , ... "Hi.t ... r II doluli"n Hir fill"r (option .. l, ,uul mi \ 111~ jjbH~mhl)'. nptiulluJ c)'donjl. ",rllieul"l" "'pan,luc('I, Iilmpling \ ",,1111 i. c:r illl:1I1 flow ""oluri, .amphnll ti)'Hh'rn, ItIHl ,Utsorh~d ""h'es. prCtiBUre lind h'mpt'ratuCl~ Sl'nSUrH. .

Th" CFV -CVS .lu.1I conrucm 10 Ihl! tullo\\"lI\g rt'4uircnwnls:

t I J Stalu.' pn'M,Urt~ vitrialilln~ ul I~u' liI.hlllll'j_) "f Ih" v"'"d~ .10 .. 11 ft'ma," ".Ihilt '.5 inch". of Willer 112 ki'lI) ur l~H' ~t,.lIc pn'ht;urt~ \'UriutiuIiH mcusurl,d dlltln~ it d~ namoml~lj~r ('nAine cydc with 1111 l:unOI'dlllU to Ilw l.,ilplpu(s).

(Sumplins sYllem8 capable or mainlaining Ihe .Ialic preslure 10 wilhin ±1 inch of Wilier (0.25 kl'u) will be used by Ihe Administralor if a wrillen requesl 8ubllanlilli01 Ihe necd for Ihis closer tolerance.)

IZI Thlllcmpcralure measuring sY81em .h,,11 hllve .. n IIc,uracy and precision of :u' F (1.1· CJ lind a responle lime of 0.100 SI,wnds to O~.5 percent of a tempera lure change (It! meuured ill hoi lilicone oil).

(3) Th. pleasure measuring S) item thall have .n accuracy and preci8ion of ±3mm fig (0,4 kPu),

(4' The flow capudly or Ihe CVS sh,,11 be tarve enough 10 prevenl w"lcr condensalion in Ihe syalem.

(5) Sample collection bailS for dilution air and eKhau.1 IIImple8 ahllll be ur sufficlenl size au ... nol to Impede aempl. now.

t3. A new' 66.UI!Hltl is addo:J ilild readl .. fulluws:

t ... ,31..... EIIhB""lIBslJ8InPIinV MIl ~.~ ...... omgInn.

(a) Ge/lera/. n,e exhuusl glls s"mpling Iyalem delcribed in Ihi. plOr .. grllph II dealsned 10 moaeure the Irue mllS8 of bolh saaeoul and purliC\l!I"le emll.iona In the exhauII of heav)'·duly die ... 1 enginu., Thll aY81em 1I1.lizc. Ihe CVS concept (described in I 86,1311114101 of mealurins mllS8 emissions of NO., CO, CO. , lind parliculale, I\. continuously iIIlegraled sYllellll1 required fur IIC measuremen!, and i. alluwed fur NO" CO, and CO,. The ma.~ or 8".eou. IImlsslUf\J I» delermin"d from thc aamplc concentration and lolul now O\'cr Ihe t".1 period. The m"ls of parliculuh, eml •• lona i. delllrn,int't! frum It proportionll' mdSS .""'ple cullcc:l"rl un M

filler and from Ihe lolul now,,, '" Ihe t"al pcnod, elmer,,1 n''1uircmt!nI8 ure II. folluws:

(l,Thia Slllllplinll S~'811'm rt"lurr,'. II", use of "I'DI'-CVS, or H CFV-CVS "ilh hellt e"chllnl!cr or wilh l'I"clronic n.,w COIllp"nStl\illn. F'lIurc N8f>-J '8 " .chemlltic drawlnll of Ihe I'DI' 8)"leOl. Fillure NII6-4 is u scho:malic dru .... illil of Ihe Ct'V syolelll. ... __ .wo·.· ..

!n~OAI" HC SPAll\( (jA~ ~ - --I

01$0'''"(;£ I I i' jl CWfTPI ill "E"TED SAMPlE l,.,£


I 'c 0

I I ...

o A""lNT .... " ""Ll1




(1oI'!'oSIO" "'EAsu"eMtNT sys TE 101 SPE C"'E D 'iii

.ao C'" Ib SUPA'" 0







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a..uNCI COIl( _a.c

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("'$SIO'" 'I.EASUA(t.t(N'T ''''5f£ ... SPEC1~I£O ""


oP"a..AL COt<llNUOVS f t."USs,.()frf UEAS\.iIi\£ M[ ~T S'SlEW rOil NO. CO CO.



c 0 ..... ' r .. $

---~ CVS I~ES$Oll I _T I I

I /"""1:::::,1 DlSC><AlIGf I~I L ______ .J

HOw CO¥'" P6A "0" l~rtONAt.. IF "II" E .CotA>IGE" " uSCD!

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0\ W

- 64 -

FAder. I Rest.IM I Vol. 46. Nil. 4 I W,'dnt'IUf"y. 'Ilnllllry 7. 1981 I PmJ>QIINI Rlllrfi

121 TIlt' IIC "nal~lklll ~Y''''m f." (hp~I·1 ronJjtinllA fPqllirc8 0 healed nuntll i<lnizatloll II .. I""lor 111F1Il1"ml hea"'" MlIl1lplf' s~- .. h·nl.

Iii Th.· 111'111 Rampl .. m .. ol he Ink .. n .Iirecll\, from Ih.· dil .. "·,, e"h~1I91 .I,."am Ihroll~h :, I"'ah'd proh" and inl"!! ... I,,.1 cOl1limll,",I.\· O\,N Ihl! 1".1 cyr.lP.. \ Inl"" (.C1""wn~:1linn for \'Hr~'ln~ nnw is m.ltlt', ,I ... IWIIJ nltlSl b" II.,·d with 8 con.lanl nuw o;o~ ~'l'T11 10 ill~ur(' a rfl'prp~entilli\ I' 0.;.,"IpI1'.

I'i) Th,' hl'ill.·.1 prolt ... hllll he 10CHh',1 tlll\\ llslrl'll!11 of a mi:\iflJl.:hit"lhrr thai ~'rp\ idt't' II ,,",form ~ilmplf' dislrihlliion

. r o.;q ,h,· CVS dllt'! (III) "lin' 1!lIlulinn 11I11n.,1 fIIlmilar In

'hCl~i' IIsf'd ff·r dips,.1 particulalp. <.;.tmpllllJ( lHa~' he u!'iPiI as 8 mixin,:t t h,lrlllll'f for ~n!'H'otl~ pmi!\siml~ nlso.

1.1) 0,,1,,'/1. Conlinou.ly Intl'l!ralrd l1u'lIsnp'nlcni of diluled NO,. CO. and (;()! is ~lI'l 1lIillf'd; ho\\e\"rr, pripr II ppl I I \ ill lit 1'11' Administrator i. "·qlli ... ·d. T,·.I rC81111a will be reqllir,," a. wPiI '" PIl,Cill!.·prinR dAIII and detail,'" .ysl('m "1""ificahon8 10 ""In Ih{~ ;Ipproval. f\.finimllm nHluiretnl'nts Jlnd I('chnkal HIH'dfir.atinns lire Riven in ("If~1 (If Ihis .. ,,:Iion.

(4) BaR """,,,lInM II l16.tJlJ!l..ll6IIIIU) 1I1I1I1)·lin,1 If /lIU~11-1l111 t:apalrilili('. '" ,hown in Nllr,-3 (nr FiRW't'! NlI6-41 "". n·'I',il"!'lI. 10 I'rnvidp bOlh !I<ItM'ou. IIn.1 1'",.li("lllaip "mi •• inns BIlRlplinR <:apahilili,,' from a Ilnlll .. lIY"Io'm if ~() •. 0) or CO, a ... • nnl mensured !'Iml i IlIIOH!illy,

I~) Sin<:e \"ariolls oonfiRUTaiions ran prolhic:p ~~q\li\'nh!nl ff~9U1191 exact rnnr(lrnlllnCt~ wilh these dmwinR!I is not "·'1ui .. ",I. Addilional "nmponrnls ouch a~ il1~trum('nl~. \'111\,('9. 901l!ftoids. l'"mI'S. and 9wilch .. s mHy be IIRPd 10 pnl\'id(! additional infurmatian nnd I 11(11 dill'lh~ the funr.tiol19 of the ( nmpnlH'Il' ~y!'lp.m",

1111 ()IIt", "'III!,linM 'IOd/or HnHlyli",.1 ~\'sll'm9 Ina" lH' u9.~d if Rhown to vir"l I'fjlli\',t!I'nl ;t'~lIlt~ unci if npprovt~,i in ad\'iJlH:I' hv Illl' AdrninistrHtor.

(h J CP"',h '111 'lit dt',';,,"'})/ i(tn. lnf! ( mnpIJl1,'nls npcpr;s;tr~' ror dirspl ("hall'" S.lIllphllJ.t shllil nw(~1 Ihe ftdhlwinj..! n·qllir .. nH·nl~:

(I) Th.· 1'1l1'··CVS. shall conform I ... .11 p! Ill .. n'quin'nlt'nl~ )iPiIt,cI for Ihp ,.'.',,,,,", ~'" I'lll'-CVS I§ 1l1l.1J~J"(ltll. 11>.· (:FV- cvs .hull conf.lrm 101111 (If h .. I:' "irI'IlH'/l1~ Ii~t('d for thp. r.xhnll~t ~as I 1\ C\'S I ~ fill IJII!I-Im~:)). In addition. til' t \'S nI~I<.;1 COlltWI11 10 Ihl~ rol1tl"in~ II \tl1ln'IIh'lll!i:

(1) I tw f1\1w (,"I'ilcit~, of the CVS 11111,,1 I ... ~\lrrl\ kill In t11.1inl.tin th(~ dilukd I "h.lIisl ~(I"anl al a tl'nlJu'rature that \'\ In .... 'li!-it.1( lonl.\' nWilStlrf! par-lieu)ult' .llId'" pr 11\ Iii III .Il lion m.'a~lIrf'mt'nl~,

Thi~ m.t\; I,.. IU hip\','" h\' l'Uht>1 of Ih,· { .. lin" in·MlnI'lho,ls· .

(,\ISIII,<:"··''''"/;'''' "".!/''''/. " C\"S tlr ,,,,rfkh'nl nnw (:ilJlild'~' If) mftint.lin a Irmpf'rntl1rr ,,( 1:~.'i F Uit.7 CJ ur I,.~~ ilt Ih,' '''"'Jlli,,~ WIl.· mil~' It" liar. I wilh Ih" pril1t",~··.hlllli(ln 11111111'1. IJ;, ~rl ~aml'lill!l ur Ill(' partielll,,!I' m;ltl'rial mil~ ttll'n I .. ~r I'lal:"IFi~"I<' ~llIi-:".

"\.LING COOl' .HO-II· ..









'1U.0<G COOl ....... H-C


.. ,.s


"Il It ~ ~ .. ~

" ~ I\! . .. it .. ~ ... ~

Z ? ... --:E '" I:-:I

'" '" I:-


'" :I c: 0: .. '<

:--.... CD

'" ....

---= .., 0

"C 0

'" ~ ~

" c: ;-co

'" \J1

- 66 -

Federal Real,ler / Vol. 46. No.4 I W4·(lnt·Rdny. /anllllry 7. 1!181 / Propn.cd Rule.

till OOllbft'-riiilltlOn method. 1\ smllllPr Ni,c CVS mn'\' be u.ed with a smuller primary-dil"tion lunnel (i.e .. Bmaller Ihnn Ihe dillliion lunnel or CVS "".Cori!>"d In § R6.1310-86(bl(1)(1\)). and II ,ccul1llary-rlilutlon lunnel 8yslem (FiRllre NlllHll_ The now capacily of Ih" (:Vli must he sufficlenl \0 malnlaln th~ Jil"h,J I·,hauol slream in the primAry­lidution IUlIIlI'l AI H lemperRlure or 375' F 1191- Cl or I.· •• 01 Ih .. IRmplins zon(>. Th~ .. ·c:onllilry dilution IlInnpl oy81rm 11",,1 I", ""5illl1"1110 provide 8urficir.nl 101"'~mdln)' dilulion nil' to maintHin the dtlllhlt· ddulpc.t .''C.hn\J~f strPRm at n ft'flIfll'ralllrp or 125' F (:;1 7" CJ ()rIHR~ imlll£'diniely flPrnre Ih(' pnl'ficlllnh~ fillt'r.

BilLING coor 8s.o-H-fII


... t





.,., tIO Do .. .. D:


t£, .. FILTER-1 t





i .. <: £.



• s:r> Z !' • --~ to 0-~ " ;; .. ~ 0: '< 0; :s c: co ~ :" FIGURE N86-6 ... ~ OOUBLE DILUTION PARTICULATE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

I~OI\ DIESEl tNGIU(S ONLY) ,C":f::F (:,r.1 Hit: foUI( ., rflr~ i:;'VlAfI("\1 t a=r..c ... .,"'"


" '" Q.



- 68 -

FOOer.1 Register / Vol. 46. No.4 I Wednesday. JAnuary 7. 1981 I Proposed 'Rules 1935

(ill for the Cf'V-CVS. a h .. al exchllngpr or eleclronic now compen.Hllon (which Includeslhe pHrhculalo IAmple nows) i8 r .. quirpd 18cr. Fillure 116--4).

(ill) Fm th .. CFV-CVS. Ihe gal mixlllrp Irmpp.ralur ... measured at a poinl Imm .. dlalely ohr"d of Ihe critical now venluri. ohnll bf' within ±20' F (11' C) of Ihe desi~llI'd oper811ns temperalur., at tlH' 81nrt of the teot. The IIU mixture t('mpernlurr. variation Crom lis value lit thp Itart of the tpst shAll be limited to ~. 20· F (11' C) durinA Ihe en III"(' Ipsl. Th" lemperHture measuring 'Yllem .hall hH"e lin nccurRCY and precision of ± Z' F 11' C).

12) Th., IrnnsfM of heat from Ih .. cnllln" e~hHu.II! •• shall be minimizl·d b .. twren Ihe poinl where It Ipave. Ihe ch".,lo .·,hausl syslem and the poinl ,·.hfr(· II pnle", Ih" primary-dilution IlInnel n:r,lream. To accompll.h thl •. a .horl I"nllih (not more Ihon 12 feet (3.00 m) if unlnRulot"d. or nol more than 20 f"eIIU.1 m). if Inlulaled) of smooth olainl",. ste,,1 tubing rom the mumer to the primAry-dilution tunnel Is required. This tubing .hall have a maximum inside diameter of 6.0 Inches (15.2 em). Short Beetionl (altogeth'lf nol 10 exceed 20 percrnl "r Ihe enlire tube length) of flexible IlIhlng At connecllon points are ""owed. If Insulated. Ihe rlldial Ihickness of the Insulalion mURI he at IrMt R inche •. where.

R"'I~(kl- 21rl ... h ...... k - ThennHI (:ondllcllvity of Ihe hUUJlalinR

mnlr:-i.IIBlll/hr·!l·· Fl. and r -'0 OILI,'r rndiu1l u( uninaul .. ted tubin"


(3) Th" PIll/lne exhaust Ahall be direcled downltreom at the point where il i. introduced Into Ihe primary-dilution lunnl·!.

(4) the primary-dilution air shall be: (II H lempcrature of 77±9' F (ZS±S' CJ.

(iii Filteled at the dilution air Inlet. Ifl) The primory-dilutlon tunnel .hall

hp: iiI l'iZl'd to prrmil developmenl of

lu .. hult,"1 now (Reynoldl No. >4000) and n·n·pl",,, mi,inll or Ihe ",hauot and dilution air hetwprn tht" mh:tnR orific('l: und

(iii AI len.118 inches (43 cm) in .linm.'tN with B .Inllie-dllulkon syst"m "r lit 1"8"1 8 Inche. 136 cm) In diAmeter "ith n double dilution sYlltem:

(iii( Constructpd of electrically nnuiucPvp mAterial which doa9 not "",<I ",ilh the exhaust component •.

(11) Th" lemperature of the diluted r,hllu"1 slreAm in.ide of the primRry­IIihl\!on tunnel Ihall be sufficient 10 prewmt wllter "onden.ation.

(7) Th .. paltleul"te collection Iyotem 1111101 b~ (:onfij!ured in ellher or Iwo ba_ic

WRY •• and depends upon the dilution method used. The .• ingle-dilution method utili?". a system that removes 8

8inRle·dllull·d proportional snmple from Ihe pfimary tunnel. Rnd then pass88 this Bample through Ihe collection filter IFiRure N86--5).

The doub:,.·dilulian method ulill7.es 8

colleclion sy_f<olJ1 Ihat Imnstef8 a single· dilllted proportionnl sample from Ihe primary tllnnl'lto a AI·condnry-dllution IlInnel where the sample I, further diluted. and then PR"'~S thl! cnmplete double-diluted sAmplr. through thr collection nller II'llIure NII8-6). In this sYllem proportional Rampling I. achieved by; (1) inlroduclng the Reeondary dilution air at a conotnnt mnSI now fale. and (2) removlnlllhe double-diluled onml'le 01 8 constnnt mass now rate. The requirements for thesl! two Iyslems follow:

(I) Single-dilulion method. (A) The particulate sample pmhe shall be:

(1) Installed facing upstream al a point where the dilutlor. air Rnd exhaust air are ",III mixed (i.e .. on the primary tunnel centerline. approximately 10 tunnel dlametera downstream of the point where the exhault ente ... the primary dilullon tunnel).

(2) Sufficiently distant (radially) from olher sampling probe8 80 al to be free from the Influence of any wakes or eddies produced by the olher probes.

(3) 1.27 cm (O.S In.) minimum Inlide dlameler.

(of) The distunce from the lampling tip to the niter holder ,hall be at I"asl 5 probe dlamete ... (for filtera located inllde of the primAry dilution tunnel). but not more than 40 Inchel (102 cml for nlte .. located out.ide of thl! primary· dilution tunnel.

(51 Dellsned to minimize the deJX>IIUon of particulate In the probe (e.lI .. bend I should be al gradual al pO.9Ible. prolrusionl (due to .~n.on. etc.lshuuld be Imooth and not sudden. etc.'.

(B) The parliculate .ample pump(e) .hall b1! located sufficiently distant from the dilution tunnel IU that Ihe Inlet 11111 t"mperAtllr~ I~ molntnined al 8 constant temperature (±5.c' F (3' Cll.

(C) The 8R8 mete .. or now Inslrumentation Ihall be located sufficiently dlolant from the tunnel 10

thaI the Inlet 1I0a temperature remalna con,Ionl(:1: 5' F (2.0' Cll.

(ii) Double-dilution method. IA) The parlleulot .. _ample tr"nlfer tube shRII be configured And in.tAlled so Ihat:

(I) The Inlet Caceo upatream in Ihe primary-dilution lunnpl ot a point wherP. the primary-dilution air and exhoust are well mixed ILe .. on the primary tunnel centprllnt'. "pproximatr.ly 10 tunnel dinmetefs dow"strpam of the point

where the exhausl enlers the prlmHry dilution tunn .. ll.

(2) The exit faces downslream In Ihe .I!condary-dlllltion tunnel.

(3) The aingle-dlluted sample exists on the centr.rline oC the spcondnry lunnrl.

(B) The part kula te BRmple tran.C"r tube shAll h .. :

(1) Sufficjpntly dialanl Iradially) from other snmpllns prohea (in Ihp. primory­dllutinn tunm.l) 80 a. to bp frl!" from Ihe Innuence of any wakel or eddlr. producpd by the other prohes.

(2) 0.5Inch"8 (1.27 em) minimum inside diampter.

(3) No longer thAn 35 inches (91.4 em) Crom Inlel plan .. 10 exit planr.

(of) Designed to minimize Ihe deposition of pnrticlliat .. durins IrAnsfer (e.8 .. bends should be 88 Ilradual 81

pOIslbl" prolruslons (due to spn~Of •. etc.) Ihould be .mooth and nul surlden. etc.).

(51 Constructed of electrically conductive materiol which does not reael with the exhaust componenll.

(C) The lecondary dilution air shall h .. at a temperature of 71 ±9' F (ZS ±5' C).

(0) The secondury-dilulion tunn'" shall be:

(1) 3.0 Inchel (7.62 em) I"lnimum In.lde diameter.

(2) Of .ufficlentlength so aa to provide a re.ldence time of at least 0.25 second. for the douhle-diluled IAmple.

(3) Constructed of electrically conductive malerlal which doca not react with the axhaust component •.

IE) Additional dilution air muot be provided 80 as to maintain I"mpl!ralure oC 125' F (51.7' C) immediately before the lample filter. This illlulion air must be Inlroduc .. d at a constant moss now rate tn order 10 maintain proportional .. mpllng. Determination of the maRS of air entering the secondary dilution lunnelll required. Introduction and mcaeurement can be achieved by ellhp.r ~f the followlnll melhods:

(I) A PDP-type pump.nowlng fIItp.red dilution .Ir .t a constant tempera lure (71 :t:9' F (28 :t:II' C)) and prelsure {atmospheric 18 acceptablel along with 8

gas meter or now Inatrllmentation fOf mus determination. (See t 86.1320-86 Cor calibration apacIHcs.) The 8RS metf'r or now Instrumenlallon 'hall be located 80 thot the Inlel Sill lelOPI'ralure rpmalna conltant (71 ±9' I' (25 ±/I" CII.

(2) A choked critical now orlflca flowing filt"red dilution IIlr. For ma •• dl'termlnation a 8" P!lller or otlll'r surface now Instru",entation I. acceptable. (See i 111·132.0-36 for calibrAt;on lpecifiCl., The 11118 met"r or flow Ipltrumentatwn .h"1I be Ipcnled 00

thaI the inlet gos t(lmpcrAlllra ff'mnin. conBlnnt (77 .t 9" F (25 ± S' CII.

- 69 -

1136 Fed.r.1 Rexi_ler I Vol. 46, No. 4 I Wednc"duy, JlloU8ry 7. 1981 I Propoaed Rules

11"1 The prlm.ry filler holder ..... U be localed within 12.0 inch .. (1.5 em) of lhe cllil of the 88condliry-diJulioa 11IIUlel.

(el The particuLate ....... ,...., .hlOlI lJc located aufficieotly 4lataD1 frmn the dilution IWlne! aD thai tile iDIet a" It'mperalure i. _iDh'ined oon.IUlI (±S' 1'(2.11' CII.

(H) The 8". meler DI Ilow _ inllrumentalioa (if dottble-dil..uOll this mellna the downat..-. devb) abaII be localed lufficifllDUy ~ ... Irom &he lunnel (eilher primal')' or --'*"YJ 80

Ih"l Ihe inlel 8111 Icmc>erlOlun remalDI ""mtllnt (:1. 5' I' (:1. 2.8· CII.

(II) c..uW/lUOUB He a.08uremenl ,)S/el1l. (il Theconlinuow HC _pIe .' ),st"/11 'us "how" in Filum NtJIJ-3 or NIJIJ-4) shal/be all "artlrflow caUiJrol101l (or span) 1>-" (ypll .y.tem. In this IJ'/HI of .·.Ien~ eAces •• pan or calibrotion !lus'splf/s out of lhe probe duiY1III calibratioll of Ihe onalyzer.

(ii) No other a""lyz ..... may draw a Humpl" from the contlDUQu. IJC IIlIIlple probe. line or ayatem.

(iii) The spaJI. calibration. or hiJcJt.ground SItIIlple flow rale. into (he slImple line ahaD be belween I11D and 210 percenl of Ihe HFID analyZ8I' flow ratl!.

(IV I The spun. calibration or hilckKruund gases shall enler lhe healed silmple line DO farther than 4 Inche. from Ihe CVS ducl or dilution luanel oulsid" surface.

(v) The continuous hydrocarbon prob" ,hall be:

IA) InH\all"d in the primary dilution '"nn.,1 facinl( upslroa81 al a poinl wh<U'c the dilulion air and e .. h"uat lire well lIIillCd (i.e. IIppro>.iIllHIt!ly 10 1lI1U1e1 "Ulillcte .. downstreH"1 01 the poinl where thee>.huusl eulera the dilution lunncl).

(81 Suffici,:ntly dlstanl (rodiaJly) from IIlher prolo"t 80 8S 10 be free from the II,/luenee of Illl)' wa~ea or eddo ... prnducud by the olher probel.

le,II" .. t.,,1 und Insula led over the ,,"l1re lenglb 10 mainlain II 315' :i:;!O' t' 1191' :! II" CI wall lemper.lure. The Iildial Ihiclo.neu of the insulation musl be lit 1" .. >1 R inches. wbere

Il Ifill I ·2(r' where I.. '1'h.·1"I1I ... 1 cUllliUClh.ll), of IIlsuluhns

m""'ndtllllu/hr ,..' F). nnd f _ Ohl,..f ruJlu .. uf UIIIII:..lll .. h·J probe

(1I:,:hl ~J.

(Il) iJ.& III. (1 27 cm) minimum intide ,lldnwtl'!f.

Ratio of Det wei&bt •• (Ka ••

lvilll ia h~lellded thatlhe lotal hydrocllri»on probe be Iree from cold IpolaliA. free from spols where Ihe probe fIIOlJ tempera lure ia leu tilan 355" F (180' C)).

(viiI The dilute e"hausl gOB flowillll in Ihe lolal h),drolcarlJUI1 sample aYI"". shall be:

(AI All7:;" .1:10' F (191' .1:6' c1 inunedi.Alely before Ihe beated filter. Thl8808 temperalure will be dalelmlned by a tempera lure aensor located .1 the e"il of the bell ted sumple line. The seutllll' ahaU have un accurucy and precision of :1. 2· 1'( 1.1· Cl·

(8) al 17:;" j: 10· t' (191" ±tI· q immedialely before I WID. 11111808 lemperalw-e will be determined by • lemperalure ... naor loc .. ttld allhe exit of Ihe "ated lample line. The lBOIIOI' shaU ha ve an IIccuracy and precion. 01 :i: 2" F (1.1· C).

(viiilll il intended \hat the dilule exhaull g88 flowing in the 10101 hydt-ocarbon sam pia sy.tem be between 365' F and 385· F It85· C and 1111' C) 805

lemperalu",_ Ii,,) The responae time of Ihe

continuous meBluremenl syslem shall be:

(All.S accond» hum an inaluntancou8 alep chllnse iiI Ihe probe entrance 10 Ill. anal)';rer 10 within 115 percent of the .Iep chlllljlo.

(8)5.5 second. Irum an inslantaneous slep chlll18l1 al the enuance \0 the sllmple probe or overnow aplln !lUi pori 10 withiD 95 percent of Ihe slep d\IIIlJ1C.

(C) t'or lbe purp"ae lIf verification of ...,Ipon .. e time •. Ih" .tep change ab .. 11 be III lellBt 80 percenl of fullscllio chari d"ncclion.

(91 Optional conllnuOU81y Inte8l'aled NO •. CO. and CO, meuuremeol Ayalam

(I) The somple prol'" shall: (AI Be in Ihe Slime r","e liB Ihe

continuous IIC prohe, bUI shall be • 811fficienlly di.lunl fl,"h~lly) from otli,>r probes so .. s to be free from the innuences of Any wakes or eddies produc.ed hy uther prohe •.

1/1) SiI,.1I fdCC upol...,,,m. (C) 1"',,100 .. nd IIlsuilOled ov .... Ihe

"utire lel18th to pre"cnt wdlcr cuooenBnhon, mllilmum telllperature I. 55C (IJI·F). SHIIII'I" ~(lS tt'mperlOwre inHII"diutcly bdort' the first (ilter in th .. "yslcm a1I1,lIllH Mt 1",,01 !>5"C (Ill "F).

Iii) The COntiDIJOUB NO .. CO. or Co. sampling end _alYIII Iyalelll shell conform to !he specu.calioos of 40 eFR 86, Subpart 0 with the foDowin& e"ceplions and revisions:

(A) The ayalem cOJDpGneQ11 required 10 be hoalod by Subparl 0 need only be heated to preveQt waler w.ndensstion. the lIlinim.um lempeBlure allowed il ss'C (IJ1"F).

(8) The Iystem re.ponae ddincd in § 86.329-711IhaU be ng &rellier than 5.5 second •. Longer rcsponae time nwy be allowed if anillysis ByalJ!m response time is coordinated wilh CVS now nUt;luatio.ns. is ~how.o to be equi\'ulent to the 5.5 sccood system. and if prior appruval itl granted by Ihe Administratoc.

(CJ Altcrnulive NO. measuremcnt techniQlW' outlined in I 86.346-79 arc nol pel'll1il'led for NO.llleaaurem"nt In this Subpart.

(0) AD al\sl)lti(;algases .hull conform to the spoociflcatWna of § 86.1314-86.

CEI Any rUl\ie on II Iineur analyzer below 155 ~JlRl .hall bllve and usc a calibration elII'Ve c.onfonuingto § 86330-111.

(F) The me8Murcmelll accuracy requirements specified in § 86.336-79 are superaedp.d.by those specified in § 811.133&--86.

(iii) 'The chari denections of analyzers witb nOlI-linear calibralion curves shall be converted to concentralion villues by the calibration clIrve(alspecified in Subparl D (86.336-791 before fluw correction (if uBcd) and 8ub8equenl inlegrallon takes place.

(c) nllt!rB. por/feu/ole HumpJi/w·-II) Fii/ar acceplance criteria. Valid diesel particulale nel filter weights shall be Hccepled accord.illllio the following crilerla:

Ii) During the cold 6tarl phllse althe be811)'-duly IrIiDaient cycle aoo IIgain during Ule Iaol 111111 pbn .. of Ihe heavy­tluly transienl qUe dolute nhallst will he Simultaneously aampled by paired primary lesl and back-up lest filters.

Iii) The baa.·up fill ... holder oili .. 11 be loclOted 3 to 4 IDChe. Gownat","m of the primary filler holder.

{iii) The net wel8hl of pllrtkulslC IIllllerial collected on cuch prilllary lest hlter and each buck-up leat filter shaU be determined b}' Ihtl prQQCldure outlilled In § OO.lSJIHJ5.

(iv) A ratio of 'wt weillht. will be determined by th" follQwing furmul .. :

(Ha •• Particulata)r f'l est 1 tel' Particulate)T f'l + (Haas Particulatt>a k eat 1 tel' ac -up filter

- 70 -

Fed.ral R .... I.r / Vol. 46, No.4 / Wedncsday, January 7, 1981 I Proposed Rule.

Iv) If Ihe rsl\o I. 8relller than 0.115. Ih"'l pnrticulRtn emissions calculations Rre bRsed on the net weight of the primary filter only.

Ivi) If the ratio is les8 than 0.95, then pnrticulAte ('missions calculations are hllsed onth" combined net weights of the bllck.up filter and the primary test filter

12) The particulate filter must have a minimum 70 mm diameter (60 mm stain nren). Larger diam('ter OIters ore RI80

IIcceptahle. (Larger diRmeter niter. mRy he deRirAble in order to reduce the prr9~ur .. drop neroos the niter when t .. "tin~ v,·hiel ... which produce IA"lIe IImollnl. of pnrlieuIHt ... )

(3) Th .. recommpndcd minimum lon<lin!! lin the 70 mm filter Is 5.3 milli~lUm". Equivalent loadll18s (Ie .. mll""'"llIin ar .. A) lire recommended ror lafQN f,llefR. For equivalency ""leulutinn. ;).-ume the 70 mm lOAd in!! h". n IlO mm stllin diAmeter.

14) Fluorocarbon cORted IIln~. fibtor fillers or nllorocArbon based (rn"mbrnne) fillers arc required for J'artir:ulotc collection.

14. fI. new § 86.1311-86 is addp.d nnd n~ads:

§ 86.1311-1& £ahaust gas a"Blylle" sYltem. CVS bag Ample.

(a) Schematic drowings. Figure N~7 is a ochemAtic drawing of the exhauI' ~"" analytical sys'em IIsed for an8IY7.in~ CVS bill! sam pi.,. from either /!asoline· lu..rrd nr die.pl cnllin~ •. The achematic nf Ihe hydroc"rbon Analysis train for dic.el cnRlnes is .hown A8 pArt of Fillur" NOt>-3 or NOH-4. Since VArioU8 confiRllflltions can produce occurate ,,'Sill,s. ""Act conformllnce with thl! tlrowin!! i9 nol requirf'l\. AdditionAl components slich RS instrnmr.nls. v8Ivp.~. ""I"noid9. pumps and switches mny be u",,,1 to provide additionnl informalion lInd cnordinntc the fundions of the component systems. BILLING COM 1580-11-11


- 7l -

1831 .'ederal Keaietllr I Vul. 40. No.4 / WedllcHdllY. Junuury 7. 1961 I Ptopoled Rule.




" ~ 5eLEC710NVA .. Ve



Y FI.O'~"'lTli'l





---- --------rI ...-_.rFU-'-e_L.....IAI~ I

HC ~--~~~~~.-QSPAN

GASeS '---0

CO '---f~'l-.i(}o-o SPAN

GASes ...... -0







9 o u..







- 72 -

Federal R .... ter I Vol. 46, No.4 I Wp.dncllday, January 1, 19111 I Proposed Rules 19:19

Ibl Major component description. The anltlylit:1I1 1)lllem. Figure N1l6-7. consists fIf. nllIM Ionization detector 11'10) for Ihe dlltrrmlnallon or hydrocarbons. nondl.per.lve Inrrared anal)lzers \NDlR) ror the detennlnaUon or carbon monoxide and Cllrbon dlollide and a chemiluminescence analyzer ICll for the .1I,lerminA\!on or oxldeB or nilrogon. A heHted nllme lonlz8110n detector IHFID) I. uoed (or the conlinuoul determination of hydmcarbnn. from diesel engine •. Flaure N86-3 or NOO-4.

The exhault gR~ analyltcal 9y.l~m • hall cnnfonn 10 Ihe Collowlng r~'quir('mpntl!l:

111 The CL rf'quires that the nitro!!en di,,~idp. prea"nl in Ihe ""mple b" c:\'n\'~rled to nllrlc oxide beCore an"IY91~. Other typea of ftn8lyzer~ may he ',',cd if shown 10 yield equivalenl "·,,,lls nnd If approved In advance by thl' Administrator.

(2) The carbon monoxide INDlR) onol)l .. "r mill' require 8 sampl" conditioning column conta.lnlng CASO •. or IndicHltng ,illca gel to remove water vapor And containing alcarlte to remove Cllrbon dioxide from the CO analY811 stream.

(i) If CO Instruments are u~ed which Are essenlially free of CO. and wat .. r vllpor inlerference. the use of the conditioning column may be deleted. ISee 186.1322-«1 and t 8O.1342~.)

(ii) A CO Inltrument will be considered to be essenlially free or CO. and water vapor Interference If itl reepon ... 10 a mixture Df:l pel'C8nt CO. In N. which has been bubbled through wAIt~r a\ room temperature produces an equivnlent CO responae. a, meaoured on the 1I10,t sensitive CO range, whIch II Ie •• thon 1 pen:ent of fullicale CO concentration on ral18l!' above 300 PPI1\ full sCllle or leal thon 3 ppm on ral18l!s below 300 ppm fullscsle. (See 186.1322-88.)

Ie) AI!p.rnate analytical systems. Analys;', system. meatlng the speclfiedtlons of 40 CPR 80, Subpart D may be used ror teltlna !hIs Subpart IN) with the "xcepllon of 1186.346-86 and 86.347--86. provided that the Subpart D .ystems meet the speclficatlonl of Ihil Subpnrt. H~8ted analyzers may be used in Iheir hen ted configura lion.

Id) Othf'r anolyrers and eqUipment. Olh~r tV!"" of IInalyzers and equipment mHV !'V lI,ed If .hown to yield equl "Rlpnt reoul19 and If apPJ'Qved In a<ivlH1("l' by the Administrator.

15. A new § 116.1 312-M Is odded Hnd rt'lld. as follows:

• 86.1312.... Weighing dIMIber Cor rvom} MIl mIcorg __ IIooI8nce ..,.ctfICIIllona.

(a) limbit'nt conditions.-(1) r~ntPf'rot"N'. The tempera lure of the

chamber in which tho particulate mte" are condltloOl·d Rnd wllillhed shall be maintained to within ± 10' F (8' C) of a lei point bl'tween 88' ~' 12()" C) and 86' I' (30° C) during all filler conditioning and Cilter weighing.

(2) Humidity. Thf! relallve humidity of the chamber In which Ihe!ar1lcuIRle fillprs are condilioned an weighed shall be maintained to within ±10 percenl or a 8et point between 30 and 70 percent during all filler condllionlnll and filler weighing.

(3) The environment shall be free from allY ambl"nt contHminntesl8uch .. dU8t)lhot would sellle on Ihe parllculale filters during thPolr stRhlllzalion. It II required Ihllt two r .. fcrence filters remain In the weighing room al olltiml'8. and Ihalthese nlters be weighed lit the beginning and end of each conditioning period. If the weight of either or both of theae two rderence nlters changes by 1I10re than ±1.0 percent of Ihe nominal filter loading (a minimum of 5.3 milligrams, if possilJle) during Ihe condllioning period. then all fIIte" In tha proceSI of being stabilized should be discarded, and any tests repealed. The reference filters shall be changed at leut once per month.

Ib) Microgram balance specifications. The microgram balance used to detennlne the weights of all filters .hall have an accurucy lind a readability of one microgram.

16. A nr.w '86.131:J-a6ls added and reads •• follows,

,II. tl1:".. ,..,.. Ip¥CtfICII .......

(a) Gasoline. (11 Gasoline having the following lpecificationl will be u.ed by the Admlnl"lralor In exhaust eml .. lon tUllng. Gasoline havinll the followlnll lpeclficallonl or IUMtanUally equivalent spaclRcallonl approved by the Administrator, Ihall be uaed by the manufacturer in ""hoult telling, except that the lead and octane 'paclficattonl do not apply. - - l_


Octoroo._ _ ........ _ ... .., .. -PII. f ...... '. r>I • f' 01JO.O.05 us ......

~-lOP. ·F ... ........ 011. n-oe n-oe .0_-- 011 , .... t:t5 '2')-1)5 T. "'-- "" -..no ---• "F. 00_- 011

__ 3~ 3OO-32!I

T. [P, 'f! - ••• ••• f_ -.- 0'_ 0'0 .... _1-_r>I .0. 0-

us SJIIIOn '''-1' IM' ... .. ron I1-U • 7-1.'

..... 001"'4." . ~. -erne.) .-.rOft\lfl(s,

"..C4<>' I_I

,. .. ,,1'" .­.-

AsrN -i

Ot:Jtg '0 'n



(2) Gasoline representulive of commercialg8Roline which will b" generally availolJle throuRh relnil oul\"l~ shall be used In SCf\'icr nccllmulatlon . For leaded gA"oline Ihe minimum I .. Hd con lent ,hall be 1.4 grllm. per 11.5. gallon. except thaI where Ihe Administrator determineR Ihnt vehidrl reprelenled by a test v"hlde will Itf' operqtl'd using gaBoline of dirfrrenl lend content than thai prescribed In Ihis paragraph, he may eOnAent in w rill nil to use of 8 8s80llne wilh a differentlcad content. The oclane raling or the g880llne used shall be not hlghpr than 1.0 Research octane numbpr above the minimum recommended by the manufacturer and have a minimum lensllivily of 7.5 octsne numbers, where sensitivity i8 defined 01 the Res!!arch octane number minus the Motor octane number. The Reid Vapor Pressure of the gasoline used shall be characteristic of the molor fuel used during the Beason in which the service accumulation lokrs place.

(3) The specification range of the lIaloline to be used under paragraph

. la}(2) of !hIe lecllon Ihall be reported In accordance wlh ,ee.084-21Ib)(3).

(b) DieBel fuel. 11} The diesel fuels employed for lesll08 shall be clean And bright, with pout and cloud point. adequate for operability. The dlp-8pl fuel may contain nonmetalUc additives 01

followl: Cetane Improver, metal deactivator, antioxiilant, dehazer. antlru,t, pour deprel8ant. dye, and dllperwanL '.

(2) Dle.l Fuel meeting the followlnll lpeciflcatlonl. or subltanllally equivalent epeclncatlonl approved hy the Acbnlnlltrator, 8hall be used in exhault emllSlons teBting. The grAde of dlelel Fuel recommended by the ensine manufacturer commercially dellgnated ... "Tyr.:: 1-0" or'7ype 2-D" grade dlelel uel shall be uled.

.... ASTW r",. 1-0 ''''' 1-0 -----~.------. ----~

.:-. De" 48-54 .2'-50

~-lIP "F. Doe 330-:180 »40-_ 1Q.,.,..... ..-..l Doe 31'0-430 --·f. 10 __

Doe .. '0·"'" .'0 ·540 "F

- 73 -

tMO .'ederal Reglatar I Vol. 46. No.4 I WedncfldliY. January 7. 1981 I Propoaed Rule.

- ---------. ..... A$'''' Typ.8 1-0 ''/POl-{)

'i() p .... ct-nl "...,,1. D80 460-~10 ~IO f

I P I "'"' 500- &60 -.-, '.'oil\l'Iy API (J..'lijl ""." )3-l1 lu'.&l s,..hJf, {lIn Uf O~.(J20 02..0' ~(; ... nl 0...."


""""""'" luun lo1thca. OIJa' '. 1/i1 ... """ ....... OIJU, ,', ", -. ClIonhno • 1II~lf.UI1I. -F 0lOI . 120 130

In .. ww-'\,l.

" 11j.O>1I1,

_. ....... .-.. c--.

' .......... . -(:II Dicoel fuel mc"hna Ih. followina

hpl:GlfiGulionH. or lubshmtian, !!tluivulenl specilicaJloQ. approvad b)' lh" Admini¥lrulor. shan be uaed iD • "rvicc accuulUlalio!'. ". ..... d. or d",.d fuul recommended by the eoa1oe mdnuf,,(:lurer. commerclallr de ....... ed i1b "Type 1-D" or "Type Z-Ir .-de d'CHI,1 fuel .h •• 11 be uleel. - ASTIII T .... l...() 'ypo2-O

{"l.tf~(~ DIll ..... -tlMi"d:IIun'", 006 . -- --110 ____

, \ ,'.only ..... 0 .... ' 31-41 ......, '<)\aI s.,.lh .... pel'lAWll LJ119 Of '0'" 01 t-_ 02W2 tl."~. F 014 •• .31 , ............ oIlIo(;OiIt'r 04S!. • ,..a, , ....... ,-

(41 Olher pci!'ul"ulII d,.11&16 f .... 1& may be u ... d for le.linl and 86",,08

ilccumulatiun pruvided they are: (II Cummcn:illlly nailable; (Ii) Informali"n. acceplable 10 lb.

Admin'llralor. I. pruvid"d 10 .how Ihlll (Jllly Ihe deH'lIll<lled fuel would be u •• d III ~u8IoDu:r Ben'ice:

(iii) Use of a fud hiled under l'"ragraphl{b){Z)and (bIl3) of tbia "'<.Iion would have a delrimental effecl 011 emi.sions or dUl'llbilily:

(1\') Wrillen 81>proval froID tha ,I\d",inlslrllior of Ihe f""llpacifications IIIl10' be provided prior 10 Ihe start of 1""flllg.

{51 The "p"df,,:ullon raor,!!,' of Ihe fuel. , .. I", u.,,<1 under purllgrll"h. (b)(:.!I. IbllJI. 'lOd (bH"1 of Ihi. &ucli"n .hllU be 1 "!,orl,,d ill [H.cordanoe wllh 186.U1!4-.: II" 11:11

17 A 1l,'W ~ b6 1.1 14-&1 I. IIt"l~d ~nd I t'.td!. d;'" 'ullu~u,

~ 86.1J 14.... Analytical gaM"

I,,) , ;".eH fur II", CO ilnd CO, '"I.d~ ''''. ah .. 11 b" 8illill blclld. of CO ~llld CO. reSpt·(:II\.t:ly usinS J1,troHcn tl8 Iht, diluent

(b) Ca_ for the hydrocarbon analyzer .haU be lingle Llend. of propaa. ultns air as lbe diluent.

leI c._ for dae NO, anlllyzer shall be linale blenda of NO named II NO, with a max,mum NO, concentratl~ of 5 percent of tlte aominal vallie uailla nll ... n a. the dduen\.

Id) Fuet for the flO shall be a blend bf 40±2 perce_ hydrasen with Ihe balance t.t .. ludium. The lIIixtute ah&ll conlain 1_ tIaaD 1 ppm eqlllval_t carbon re.ponse. 96 10 100 percent hydrogen fuallllllY be ned with adVaDCl8 approval of 1M AcImlaI.lI'alOr.

(., 11ae &llowabie &erg lIal (air or nilrc:lpnllJDpuriq OOIIConlletlOllI ,baU nol exceed t ppm equiYMleQI ~ rupoo ... t ppm c:uboO monOKide. (tot poroenll<lOO ppm) carbon dioxide ud 0.1 JIPID IIitric oa.ida .

(1)1&) ''z--,...cl. air" Include. ertlflci&l "all" COIIa.ling of a bltmd of nilftlteD aDd o~.n wilh OX18e8 wncenlraUona beI ... _ 18 Bod ZI IDol. percent.

(2) CallbNt&o.n 8- ahall be traceable 10 wllbin 1 percent of NBS lIa. ItunMnU. Ql olhar ga' .llIndarda which have beeo approvlld by the Admlniltrator.

(3) Sp1olJl1l1l8e. ,h .. D !... al:curule 10 within Z pen:anl of tru8 concentration. where lrue concantrliUon rcflll'll 10 NBS saa .tandarda. or other g\l8 slandarda which have been IIppnlv..d by the Admlnlolrlltor.

(s) The lise of proportioning and precision blending davlc.,. to obtain the required gu t:uncentralion. i ... liowilbl& provided their UBC hal !...cn IIpproved in advance by Ihe Admini.tralor.

tl. A new 86.131S-88 Is added and relerved al follows:

I H.131.... ,R","'"I 111. A Bew 116.131&-.l1lI i. lidded aad

r"ada a. followw:

§ H.13 16-.. Callbrallona; frequencwand oYetVlew_

(a) Cllhbrllllonl &hllll be performed a. Ipedfied in II 86.1318-4l6thruullh 8Il.132~.

(b) AI IeIlSI monthly or after any muilltenance whit:h could IIl1er cdlibrlllion, Ihe foll(}willll u.hbrllliun. lind chedts 8hull be perfurmed:

(1) C"librulc lhe hydrot:arbon .wulyzer. Lurhon d",,,id .. Itnulyzer. r.l"son mono"id .. IIn.l)zl'r. lind oxide. of nilr08"n lIu .. l),z"r.

(2) Calihrutl! Ih" "1111"'" d)'fuunomilier nywheellOrljuu lind .pced mtl"luremlml IrunaJucl!r •.

(3) Clllibral" Iho Cllilill" nywhuel lorque and speed ft!t!dbll(:k signal •.

(e) Allea.1 wl!d..!y or afll,r !lny mainlenanUl whit:h (:ould ullt,r

calibration. tlae following <:8libration. and checb Hall be perfurraed:

(11 Check .... olrid .. of nitrofl8n converter efftdeacy. and:

IZ) I'Ierforma CVS 'YII'flIlI verification. (d) The CVS posittw dieplacement

pump or aiticalliow venturi ebaU lit calibrated Iollowtnc InitielllUltaUation. major maiiltellanOll or a. weoesSIII)I wilen iDlicated b, the CVS system verificalioft (deecribed in 186,lSl~).

(e) Sa .... oonditi0nin8 columns. if uscd in the CO analyzer train. should be checked lit e frequency consistent wilh observed column life or when Ihe Indicalor of the column padilla bqin • to shGW deterioration.

20. A new 118.1~11-861. added and re.erved III follows:

§H.ll'~ ..... II\MJ 2t_ A uw • _~. added and

reads III followa:

§ H.131..... EngIne dW,,.sNII."r a~ caIIIII'8 .....

lei The engine flywheellOrque aDd enaine speed __ meol trenaducers shall be calibrated alle8lt once each monlh wilh the calibration equipmenl described iD 1 •. 13011-86.

(b) The eosine fI)'Wbeellorq\18 and speed fe.dba.ck aigMlabaU be cillibraled atlaeat once eadl monlh_

(c) Oilier ensIoe dynalllOmeler system calibration. maU be performed 88

dictated by 100d l!I\Iineerioa practice and maaufaelww·. recommendations.

(dl When caJlbr!l11na the engine flr-meallorque traneducer. any lever arm u¥ed 10 CODvert a wei&bl or a force throUjlh a dlslaace into a Iorque shall be used in a boriaonl8l POSitiOD I ±6 dcsree.).

(e) Cllbbraled re.ialors may nol btl used ror eJ1Ilne flywheel lorque Iransducer ulJbratlon. bul may be us"d 10 "pun Ihe Iranaducer prior to engine I~stlng.

22. A new 1 88.t311H18 is added .. nd reada al rollowa:

t ... 13' .... eva calibration. (al Th. evs I, calibrllled usillg lin

uccurale flowmeler and reslriclor valve. The ~11 libra led accuracy of the fl"wmelor ,hall be traceable 10 the National Bureau of Standards 10 wllhln 1 percenl of the true flow value. (Nole: III no caae alaould an IIpalream acreen or other re&trictioo which Clin effect Ihe flu", b" used ah-d of the flowmelcr unle.8 caUbralad throughoul the flow rUlI1I8 with luch !l device.) The evs calibrallon procedure. are designed for Ule of II "meter\ns venlurl" type flowmeler. Properly calibrated large rudius or ASME now nonels 8re

considered equlvalenl if trocellble 10

- 74 -

F .......... a., I Vol .• No. .. I WednelCl.)'. I......, 7. 1811 I PrapcIMd Rule.

NBS measurements. Other measurement ~v.tcms may be u.ed If Ihown to be equivalent under the talt conditions In Ihis action and if approved by the Administrator. Meuurements of the vArioUI nowmeter paremeters ere recorded and related to now through the CVS. Procpdures used by EPA for both PDP- and CFV-CVS', are outlined helow. Olher procedures yielding equivalent reBultB may be uBed If Approved in advance by the Administrator.

(bl After Ihe calibration curve hal been obtained. verificAtion of the entire .y,lem may be performed by InJecting II known maoa of g88 into Ihe sy.tem and ~ompRrin~ the rna .. indicated by the .y~lem 10 Ihe tnle ma.s InJected. An indiCAted error doe. not necea.erily nWlln thai Ihe calibration i. wrong. since olhpr faclor. can Innuence the "n:mancy of the .ystem. e.s. analyzer c;,jibrllllon or HC hangup. A verification procedure Is found In pafa*graph (e) of Ihls .eclion.

(c) PDP colibrotion. (I) The following calihration procedure outline. the equlpm"nl. the test conftauretlon. end Ihe various parameters which must be measured to establish the now rate of the CVS pump.

(I) All the parameters relaled to Ihe pump are simultaneously me .. ured with the parameters relaled to a nowmeter which I. connected in .erlee wllh the pump.

(II) The calculaled now rele £ll/mln .• (al pump Inlel absolute prellure and t"mperaturel eRn then be plotted versus a correlfllion function which I. the value of II apecmc combination of pump porame!e,..

(iiil The IIneaf equation which relate. Ihe pump now and tha correia lion function Is Ihen determined.

(iv) In Ihe evenl thaI a CVS hal a mulliple speed drive. a calibration for each range used musl be performed.

(21 This calibration procedure Is baled on the measurement of Ihe ab.olute vulues of the pump lind flowmeter parumetpl"1I thllt relate the now rate at each point. Three conditions mU8t be mAj,ltulned to ',"Rure the acclIl"3cy and Intellrlty of the calibrallon curve:

(i I The pump pressure, should be mPRsured nttaps on the pump ralher thlln at the external piping on the pump Inlet lind outlet. (Pressure tap. thai are mounted at the top center and bollon center of the pump drive headplate ari! o"posed 10 Ihe RctUAI pump cavity pres,ure. and therefore renectlhe ab80lule pressure differentiall.)

(ii) Thl! tempera lure ,Iabllily must be maintulned during calibrRtion. (Flnwmctel"1l are sensitive 10 Inlel h-mpI'rllture o.dilations which CAuse

the dala point. 10 be Icatlerl'd. Gradual changea In temperature are Hcceptable al long .. they occur over 0 period of leveral mlnule •. )

(iii) All connection. bel ween the nowmeler and the CVS pump IIIIISI be absolutely void of any leakage.

(31 Durlna an exhaust emission t8llt the mealurement of these 18m, pump pare meters enables Ihe user to calculale the flow rate from the calibration equation.

(41 Connect a .y.tem al .hown in filure N88-3. Although particular typel of equipment are shown. other configurations Ihal yield equlvall'nl ratlults may be uaed if approved in advance by the Administrator. For the Iystem indicated. the following data with given accuracy are required: .... L_CODE_ ......


..u.. ___











i .. e. i I -c: ~ $

~ .. -~ ......

t \J1

• C. III ~ -III = S :" ... ! -,

- 76 -

Federal R .... ter I Vol. 46. No.4 I Wednesday. January 7. 1981 I Proposed Rules 1M3

a ... nmetrie pre~. ~ AmbMtnI ~.ture AillompMaturt> tnlO Stv .. fIt .. ___ drop ~ srv ..,... ..-.t throat . Aft 1~I"u,e a' CVS pump ... , .. Pt~ ~!'Iion .. CVS pwmp"'" ~IC gr.......,. of~ .. IIuId ('.75 OIl) "' .. , ...... hHd ., CVS .,......., ou&It .. A. T~.h.Itt!o al CVS pump outlet Copttonal) Pun"" ,~~ durtng I'" ~ , ... f 18f1"...-d f1mfI 'Of '"' "...1Od

P, T. £T' eOl' PTO ..... SpO PPO PtO N

(5) Arrer Ihe sYllem has been connecled 89 .boWD In Figure N88-8, lei Ihp vnrlHblr restrict or In the wide opl'n 1"",llon und run the CVS pump For 20 mioul/". Rpcord the collbration dAIH.

1111 Resel Ihe r!'strlctor valve 10 R more r .. , tricled condition In an incremenl of pu"'p Inlet depression thlll will yield A mioimum of six data points for tbe lolal calihralion. Allow the syslem 10 Rlnhilize for 3 minutes Dnd repeAl Ihe dalll Rcqulsltion.

(7) Dolo onolysis: II) The air flow rule. QR. al eoch lell point Is calculaled in .llIndord cubic fel'l per minule (88" F. 2~.q2"HG) from Ihe flowmeter dala U"inllihe mAnufRclurer's presr:rlbl!d m!'lhod.

(ii) The air now rail' Is Ihl'n COII"f'rt .. d to pump now. v •. in cubic feel per r('volution 81 HbAolute pump Inlet "''''perAlure Rnd prl'RSure.

v o


t -!. z 29.92 "-28 P p

V,," Pump now, fI'/revolution Im,/ rl"volutionlot Til' p.,

Q,- MeIer HI, now mle In olanddtd r.ublr. ft!(lt per mlnut.,. ItlsndArd condUionlt an! flO' F. 29,92 in. H~ 120" C. 101,3 "I'll).

.. "t "'Pol "rq 'F rc, .. H,o",,,,,, 'F rC) ...... to ... ,

Ir\. IUd "PII 'Frq - ..


.. Of In Ht f t 034 U' •• t 5 r« .. ~·C) t 50 F(' a'c, , 011 In H.O t!. 0'2' kJII.' '5F"I*21C, .. 05." fluid 4 t 0" "Pa •

• 05 If'! fluid f .. 01' 'PII • 5 F tt 21'q .. ,RMI'

• OS,

n =' Pump Ipf!ed in revolution. JWr minute. T. Pump Inlpl lemperalure R(K) P-PTlt _fR). nr r P11+ 273 (,K) "~ Ahtmlnle pump InlP! pro' ....... In. IIA

IkPH) P~ I' -1'1'1 lSI'. (;,/13,57) fn' SI tlni ••.

p. =- Il" ._. PPI Wh.,r:

P._botromelric p,e •• u, •. la. IIR (kl'a). !'PI E Pump Inlpt rlrprc •• lon. In. nuld Ikl'AI. Sr. Gr.::.- Sprdfir. Rru\·ity 01 mnnomrtrr

nuid rt·lnli\'~ to wHh'r.

liii) Th~ corr.,)ation functlon at ench lesl point ,. then calcuhtted from the calihrAlion dltla.

11: o • .!. '!a

L\ p

• WhrfP:

x. "":; correlation runction.

AP,II!!'Th~ prP,lIlure dirrr.rrnti;11 from pllmp Inlel to pump outirl, In. "" (kl'lI)

-p.-p, P.EAh,llOlute pump outlel pr''''"urr, in IIIit

(ltPal -1'.+ I'PO ISp. Gr./13.S71 'u, SI "nil •.

1'. ',1'. + PPO

(d) CFV ClIlibrulion (1) CI. 10 I.", 11110 of Ihe CFV I. hned upon Ihe nnw .. qullli,," for a critical venlurl. GIIO now i. n functioa of inlel p'''~Rllr'' nnd temperoture:

Wh.",: Q.=now. K.,-calibratiun c()I'(fir:il:nt. p; .b,olul. p, .... urP. T _ Rh.olute temprrnturA',

The calibration procedure describ~d b .. low estnblishes Ihe valu .. of Ihe calibration coeHicient al m .. nRured values of pressure. lemp<'h.tum and nir now.

(2) The monafuelurer's recolnlllf!ndf'd procedure IlhaD be followed for calibrntinR electronic portions of the CFV.

(3) Meulurem .. nls neCf's.nry for flow calibration are as follows:

c •• allan 0.11 ....... "."'4"."'",.

- ...... _.odI .. _,- ...... ___ Si'V __ _

.. -av ..... ...,......". ' ....................... ..... _._ .. _ ...... 7B00ll

-----------_._--_ ... p. (TI EDI' Q, .... T. SpClt

.. ""LPoI .. ~ fCl ....... .. H,o fId'oI.. .• F.It"*, (mJ,"*,) .. IoodttoPol ~fCI.

± .01 In Hg, t ,034 tiP •• • SO· F ( '.Ie c) :t.05in H,o (t".Ot2 tiP.,

.. _ Y.5' .~. l' 05 In ,...... ( ... Gn "P8t ._;t5·F.:+~CJ.

14) Sel up equipmtmt at thown In Fi/lW'll N8&-9 and check for leaks. Any I"aks between Ihe now measuril1ll device. and the criticRI now Yenturi will seriously affecl Ihe Accuracy of Ihe calibration. _"-COOI. __










IUa. CODe --.e

... !



f -< ~ $ z p

• -~ CD ..... ~ ..... ::s It • ~

':C -CD ::s

! , ~

! -{ " Eo I

- 78 -

, ...... a ........ I Vol. 46. No. 4 I Wedne.dIlY. ,uUIII'J 1. 1911 I Pwopoeed hie. tM5

(6) Set the variable now restrictor to the open position. Itart the blower. and allow the system to stabilize, Record data from IIlIlnltroments.

(8) Vary the now restrictor and mak" Ht least 8 rendl1l81 acroll the crltlcHI now rHnll" of the venturi.

(1) Data ano/ysis. The data recorm-d durlll8 thl' calibration are to be ule in the followlnll calculation.:

(I) The air now rate. Q. at each test point il calculated In ,tanllen! cobic feet per minute from the now meier data uRlnll the Rlunufncturer'l pralCribed method.

(II) Calculate values of tha calibrAtion coefficient for each teat point

q rr • .:I~_".;.

p .,

Where: Q. = Plow rale In slandard ""bll: rrel per

minula •• I"ndard condition. In! 88'F. 29.9Z I ... H3120'C, JOU "Pa,.

T.= Temperalu", 81 vlnluri Inlel. RIK,. I', = Pn!w ...... at venlurl"""t. mmlllllkPa,. = P.,PI'I (!II'. Gr./13.57)' ror SI "nlto: p,e 1'.- PI'!

Wb"",, PJlI ~ Venlurl Inlel prea" ..... d .. pre .. ion. in.

fluid IkPa,. Sp. Gr. a Sprcific sravlly ." mallOmpl",

fluid. ",Iallve 10 walPl'.

(iii) Piol K, 88 a functioa of nnluri inlet prcsaure. For BOniC Row, K. will have H relAtively conatanl vallie. AI prcsRure dl!creoses(vacuam Increoses). Ihe venturi becomes unchoked and K. decrense •. See Figuree N16-10 "LLINO COllI • __ _

- 79 -

1_ , ............. I VoL ... No." I Wednelday. January 'I. 1881 I P:po::cI R .....

(!} Z -~ 0 ::c ,...... () 0

N ~ J:

. - 0 -"'-( ..J

Z u.. 0 0 -en -en Z w 0

C!l a: Cf)

~W a..

I w ~CJ C

0 a:~ I- ,....


Wa: \.D c.. ...J CO

0 Z Z - w a: ::::> ~ -u..

I ~


- 80 -

federal ResJal.r I Vol. 46. No.4 I Wedn!:'Rd_),. IIInUltr)l 7. 11181 I PropoBed Rule. 1917

It. ) Ipr il minimum of A points in !lIP rt Ilkal r..,.~ion cukulntc anf"avcraJ,W K, al,,1 I~" "I"nllnrd dc\·illtinn.

I"} II I~" ,Ianunrd devialion excl'pd~ OJ I"'r""nl 01 Ihe n\''''''!!P 1<, lake rOflPt.ti\p adinn.

Ie} C\'S .<yslt'lI1 ,·cl'ifiC:Clliol1. The fp1lowin1l. ")!ravimetril:" 1('chni'lu(' (:on h,' 110".1 In \ prifiy Ihlll the CVS and Ilna!yticill instrunlents CArl oc-curalol), mt'a .• ltrt~ a ma~~ of ~ns that ha. h('(m inj"rl"d in'" Ihe sysillm. (Verification Citll nl~o 11f' nrcompliAhcd hy conalanl nnw ml'll'rin" u~Ir'" crilicAI now orifj"" d(·\'in'~"

I') Ohillin n slIlAIl cylinder Ihal h.1Q b,'rn ')"',,:,·d wllh pur.' propAne or ( 'rhl1n IllnflH''(it.if. BHS tC811lion--r.nrbon mOIl.,,!d,' !~l poisonou:t).

In Il'''",minp II ref!!renee cylintl!!r "PI~hl 10 Ih" n"lIrest 0.01 lImmg.

P) (lperal .. Ihe CVS III Ihe normlll '1'+lrIlH'r ,'Hld rt'iNlflP. It qunntity of pure r'rop.IIlt' I1r rnrhnn monoxide Into the ".\ 911'", -iuring Ihe !Amplin" peri,ld (I1pprIJ"IIIIt\"ly 5 minul~91.

(4) Thl' <"Icul"tions of, 86.1342-118 nrp rl'rformf'd in Ihe normal way excepl ;;, Ih.· CIIS" of I'roI'8ne. The <'cnsily of prol'nnIl117.56 g/Ft'/carbon atom (0.8201 k~/m'/c~rbon Dlom)) is used In place of !hll density of e"hnusl hydrocarbons. In Ilw 1;1(91) of cArbnn monoxide. Ihe d"I1Rily of 3297 girt' (1.164 kR/m'l Is u.'l'd.

1511'1". IIr1l\'lmeiric mnS8 I, .uhlraclcd frum II", CVS measured mo •• lind Ihen d;vlcll'd hy the gra"lmctric man 10 ,h'lnminl' th,> percent OCCU,IlCY of th .. 1'lVAIf'lIl.

lro) (:",,01 "!lginPNlng practice requi"', Ih"t "", ,'.","" for any di.ctrpanc)' w""ll'r Ihlln :t2 p .. ru'nl musl he found ;llld cUITPr·!ed.

~:\ /\ nt'''' § 1\(\.1:120-00 Is added nnd r,'adt-l 1I:'\ follows:

§ e8.1320-88 0 .. meter Of now Instrum'POtAllon calibration. pllrt\cvlat. m.8!J.urement.

S"mpli"~ for parlir:ulnlc emissions "''111in'' th" use of gns melers or now inO:lrlII1U'nl;ltilln to dt!!flrmine now Ihrnll~h Ihe parliculol .. fillprs. This ifl~truIlH'nl ~hall rl~r:ei\'e initial and pt'ril,dll f..dihralions liS follows:

(,,)(1, 1".lalla sli'!HI.".d nir now m".'SL!l'I'n\f~llt device (stich us laminar nllw 1'1,· II". nI) IIp,tr.'IIm of Ihe ill'l. '''" .. ,,: This 'Iandard devicl' shllll liWW,!'l1' .1;1 Oow Itt stnndRrd conditions. Slul1,(.'rd: .,,,diliol1' lire d"r;ned III !I8'F 120 CI :.fld ~~, !I:~ inr~"s of ml'rcury (101.:1 liP" I. ,\ n I1ielll fl,lIv o! ifice. a bellmoulh n07.;rlt· dr H I.lmin:lr now 1~lpmcnl is re"omml'n,lt-d as Ihe .Innd"rd (Ievicl'.

(ZI FIliI\' ;,;r Ihrollllh Ihl' cillihrnlilln aystt-m ul 'h~ sample now rale ust.·d rUf

parli. ,.I"t .. I"slin" and Illlhft

baekpl'f'II.urn "'hleh occurs dnrinllihe RAml'Ie Il'aI.

(3) When Ihe Ip.mp"fll'",. nnd pr .... ure In Ihe R~'8Iem have .I .. billzed. mrnaure the MilS mp.let' indkuled volume of Ihe ins'rum{'nt oyp.r II tlmll period of al ','asl 5 minules IInll unlil a now ,,,Ium.> of 8111'A81 ± 1 p.'rr:"nl accu"tC~' can he d!,trrminrd hy Ihe .I"ndllrd device. Rtcord Ihe Itohili7.ed air lemperalo,. and prPllure uplt,..."m of Ihe inatnmtenland III required for th,. siandard cleviep-.

(4) Calc"I"I .. lIir now al slandllfd conditions U8 ml'".ur,," hV bolh ,,,­standurd device And Ihe inslrument.

(5) RepeAllh" rorner.dUF'" of parAgrnphs (hllhrollllh (01 ahov!! osi"" nnw rnlt·s which IIr .. 10 ppn;PlJI above Ihe numinal 9Amplinll now tRle lind 10 p"reenl below thl' nominol."mpllllll now rale.

(61 If th .. Hir now al slnnd.",1 conditions meAsured h" Ihe iMtrumenf difTers bl' more thAn ::I: 1 petT.f!IIl from the ,tanderd me".ure ..... "1 01 any of Ihl! Ihree me".ured now rHte •. Ihen B

corTeCIkm shall be mlldr. hy eltber of the follOWing two methods:

Ii) MechRnlcally adluslthe In~trallH!llt so Ihal " "srees within 1 pen;enl of lhe slllndard mpa.uremenl althe thN!f! specified now ralc8, or

(ii) Develop _ cOnllnuous be.1 fil calibratiun curve for Ihe instrument (a. a funellon of the slandArd device Onw ",,,asaremenl) from Ihe three calibrali<lll pointe that repre1lt!nll Ihe data to within t perunt al all poinls 10 delennine COrl'tCled flow.

Ihl Other Bys/em8. A b!!ll pronf may be uR.·,llo r.lllihrule Ihe InAlruml'nt if lhe procedure outlinl'd in ANSI BI09.1-1973 is IIs .. d. !'tior appro",,1 by Ihl! Adminisln.lllr I. nol rl'lfuirp" 10 URe Ihe b .. 11 pro ... 'r.

24. A new 100.1321-86 i. ",Id"d and rpads 118 follows:

§ •. t321-18 Hydtocar1Mln analyzer c:albrallon.

The FID hydrocArhon "nltll'zer shull rpcei"" Ihl! follnwin" iniliul "n" periodic calihrnlion. The I WID shnll be oprrllll'd 10 A 81'1 poinl ::!: 10> F (~: 5.5" C) helween .1(1.1 !Ind 385" F (165 lind 197' C).

I") huliol nnd periodic optimizalion of delpclor rc.pon~l'. Prior 10 II. inlroduclion Inlo ."n·ke nnd Itl Il'a.1 Annuallv Ihe"'afler Ihe FlO hydrocarhon "nillyz,:r shall b" "dju.led fur optimum h~ tirocarhon rps!,,,n.,,. AIIf'rnllIC nwlho"ft yil'ldin!l "quivul"nl re5ult8 mAy hp "",d. if "pprovpd in ,,,h'Rnee hy Ihe A<lnlinislratnr.

(1) Follow Ihe mnnufadllrer·. inslru"tions for Initial inAlruml'nl slRrt· up Rnd hasil: 0p,'rillin!! udlu91ml'nl IIsinM

th" "I'Propri"le furl (.,." tAlI 1:114· !III) nnd Ef'l'o·"",d .. /l1F.

(21 Optimize on Ihe mu.1 commlln ope"'tinM r"nIlP .. lnlrOlhw" in/nih .. anal)·7.er. a prop""" in IIir mi,lurr. wilh a pruponl! "oncenlrnlioo "ljllal 10 npprn.<imah,ly lit), .• of Ih" mo,,1 rllmmnn op .. ralinll r8nt!8.

(3) Onl' of tho foUo,.,;n)( p"' .... dur p 5 is "'(Iuired for ~'ID CIt' IIFIO 1l1"lIn iz.ltilln.

Iii The pnx:t"dures onllillf'J ill Sod,·I.y of Automotive i:llJineel'!lISAF.) pill",r No. n0141. "Oplhnizution of Flame Ionization D"ll!ctor lor Uelerminulio" uf lfydF'OCllrboos in Diluled AUlomohile F."hausl": author. GI"nn O. Rp.Lh~l!.

liil The II .. IU optimizalion proc"dure! olltlined in 4Q CFR 86. Suhll.trl D.

(iiiIA!temale pmcedUfIl. arr alluwpd, If approycd In "dvancl' by Ih .. AciminialralOl'.

(41 Aflcr the optimum now r .. le. hA\e been dp.lermined. Ihey an, rer.ord.·d f.1f fulure refp.r('nce.

(b) Initial and periodiC culibration. Prior 10 ita Inlroduction Inlo !lCf\ice and monthly Ihereafter the FID 01' I !FlO hydrocarbon analyzer .hall be calibrated on all nonnally used Instrumenl rAngl's. Use Ihe 8ume now rale a. when analyzinll samples.

(11 Ad/usl anulyzer 10 optini;!.., performance.

1%1 Zero the hydrocarbon anRlyzer with zero-grade nir.

25. A new t 86.1322-88 i8 add .. d and reAds a, follows:

• 111.1322.... CartJon __ Ide aMlyz ... calibration.

Tb .. NDIR carhon monoxide :lO.,lyzrr shall receive the 'ollowillll inilial nn" periodic calibmliona:

(oj 'nillal and periodic Inlerf('r~ncr. check. !'tior to It, Inlrodllction inlo service lind annually Ihrrenffrr Ihl'! NOIR carbon monoxide anah7.rr shllll bl! checlwd ror respOt1ft 10 ":d fI'r ""por nnd CO.: .

III Follow the manufacture", Inslruction. for in-'rumenl 9111r1'1I1' Ami opera lion. Adjust lhe Rnalyzer 10 oplimlze performance on thl' mool sl'nsitiYe rRnle 10 be lI.cd.

(Z) uro Ihe r:arbon mono;d .... Analyzer with eillwr IIPro·l!rt,d .. lIir or zp.ro1frnde nlfrot!en.

(3) Buhble a mixlure of 3 p"",,'nl CO. in N. throush water at toOlII trml"'ralure and record _Iyzer ""pons'!.

14) An analyzer resJlOll'" .. r more Ihan 1 percenl of fun Kale for '"1"11'" HboY4! 300 PPIII fuU acale or mor ... ha" 3 ppm on ranI!" below 300 pJllJI full 81" .. 10 will require conecllve ItCtIoa. I"'"' of conditionlnll coIUlllnl II 0fI4! forlll of corrective action which lI'I/1y ha Iliken.)

(bl Inl1l81and periodic calihr.JI,,". Prior to ila Introduction IlIlu "',,·k..- and

- 81 -

IM8 Federal Resllter I Vol. 46, No.4 I Wednesday. January 7, 1961 I Propoled Rule.

8moothl¥ thererter the NDiR carbon monoxide anal)'Zer shaU be c:alibealed.

III Adjult lhe analyzer 10 opllmlze performance.

(2) Zero the carbon monoxide enalyzer with eilh~ zero-srade air 01'

zero-arade nllI'08M1. (3/ Calibrate on eech uled opera tins

rantle wilh carbon'monoxlde In Ni calibration S8l81 hlvlns nominal concenlrallonl ." 11. ao. 45. eo. 11, and 80 percenl of dial rallp. Additional calibrlllon polntl IDly be pUrl ted. For each rinse callbraled, If the devlallon from a leBst.aquares beat·flt IlrIishlline la 2 percent or Ie .. of die velul et each deta poinl. concenlratloa ValUII Dlay be calculated by u~ of I Ilnsle c:alibrallon faclor for tbal ranp. If the deviation exceed. 2 percenl al any point. dI. best· fit non· linear aqua lion wblch repreaenta thl! d.t. 10 within Z percent of each IeII point shall be used to determine concentration.

(e) The Initial end periodic interference, .yeteDl chec:k. and calibrallo,n te8t procedurealpeclfied In 40 CFR 86. Subpart D IDly be UMCIln lieu of the procedurel lpeciRed In thil section.

28, A new I 86.t32:H1O I, added and rcad. as followa:

t ".1323-86 OIlldH Of ....... ....,., clllbrlUon.

The chemil~mlne8Cent oxides of nit rosen analyzer shall receive the following Initi,,1 and periodic cnllbratiorl.

(u) Prior to lIs Introduction Into tic,vice und weekly thereafter Iba (:hemiluminescent oxidea of nlllllen ttnsl)'Zer shall be checklld for NO. to NO wnverter efficiency. Jo°isure N~tt is a reference for the follow ina 8teps:

It) Follow the manufacturer's Instructions for instrument Itart-up and operation. Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance.

(2) Zero the oxides ot nitrogen unulyzer wilh zero·arade lilr or zero­gfude nitrogen.

(3) Conl/eet the oUllel of the NO. sene,utor 10 the sample Inlel of Ihe IIxldes of nitrogen onlil¥l!er which hua bcen sello the mosl common opernting r11l11l8.

11)lnlroduce Inlo Ihe NO lIenorutur . unlllyzcr-system un NO In pitrollen (N.) ml"lure wllh 0 NO cuncenlration "qual 10 ol'proA imaldy 80 percenl of Ihe most (;ummun opera ling ranso. The NO. conl~nl of the gu. millture Ihall be less Ihan 5 pt~rCenl of Ihe NO concenlrlltion.

IiI Wllh Ihe oxides of nitrogen ""BlYler in Ih" NO mode. record the ""Ilnectlon of NO indicl*ted by the UIlIlIYIl".

(6) Tum on Ihe NO. generator 0. (or air)aupply and adjust the 0. (or air) now rale .0 tballhe NO indicated by the analyzer Ie aboul 10 percentle88 than Indicaled fIIllep (5). Record the concentration of NO In lhis NO+o. mlxlure.

(7) Swilch Ihe NO. generalor to the seneratlon mode and adjusl the seneratlon rate 80 Ihal the NO measured on the analyzer 18 20 percenl of thai mel.\Ifed In alep (5). There mUll be at lee.ll0 percenl unreacled NO al \hi, polnl. Record the concenlration of relldual NO.

(8) Swilch the oxides of nitl'08en anal)'Zllf' 10 the NO. mode and me88ure Iolal NO.. Record this value.

(8) SwItch off the NO. senerator bUI maintain gal now Ihroush Ibe 8Y81em. The oxida. of nitrogen analyzer wiU Indlc:al. Ihe NO. In Ihe NO+ 0. mixture. Record this valull.

(10) Tum 0(£ the NO, generillor O. (or air) supply. Thu ana1yzer will now indicate the NO. 10 the original NO In N. mixture. Thll value should be no more than 5 percent above the valu. indicated In Itep (4).

(11) Calculate the efficiency of tbe NO, converler by 6ubslilulins th. conceotrations obluined intc the (ollowlng equillion: Percent Efficiency m II + B-h/c-d)1 x 100 Where:

a .. r.onc.entrutiun ohlOlined in 8tep (8t, b a concentration ublained in 81ep (91. C - concentration obtained in Itep (ClI. d - conc8nlr~tlon obtuined in slep (7).

If converter efficiency is nnl greater thlln 90 percenl corrective .. ~lion will be required. ~cow. __


4 115 V.A.C.


- 82 -

Federal R,lster I Vol. 46, No.4 I Wednesday, January 7. 1981 I Proposed Rules 1949









- 83 -

1110 Feder.1 R ...... I Vol. 40. Nu ... I Weunesuay. January 7. 1981 I Propoeed Rule.

11011111" .. 1 ,"ltl P"rIlJt.il~ Lil10 lm.llon. 1'0,,,, 10 II. onlr",ludu/O 10111 aen'lce lind 1I1"/llhl~ 1t1l'r~"her Ihe d .. ,n"lumonc:.t;t:nl o"u.l.,. of njlroaen ulldl):",r shdll hll cllhbraled 011 all nllrmally u,,,d inslrumenl raDle,. Use Ihe •. ,m,l flow rule'lI8 when lIDalyUna 6illllpl" •. Proceed ';s followa:

111 Adlusl un .. ly~er 10 optimize Jwr'urnulnc~ ..

(2) Zero Ihe o"idu of nitroten analyzer wllh zero'arode air or zero­srade nitrosell.

(3) Calibrale 011 each normally lI.Ied "1,,:rulinS nmlle with NO In No L.,librulioll s~.e. wilh nominal wncenlr .. tiona of 15.30, 45.60. 15 and 110 ""rcenl of Ihal langtl. For ead! nose calibralcd. If theduvialioa from alea'l· SljUII'rel beal·fll ,lraighll1ne 11 Z percenl or len uf Ihe v .. lue al each dala polnl. wnr;enlmllon vllluel mlly be calcul.led by ule of a linllie calibr.Uon factor for Ih .. l mnll'" If the deviation exceedl Z !,,,rcenl "I uny poinl. the be.l·ftl DOn· 111"'''' '''l" .. lioll whlclJ rep/'lllllnia Ihe d"la 10 wilhin 2 pllrCl;lnl of each "II 1",1111 shull be uled 10 deterlllin. (;(In':I~nlrution ..

(el 'M,e Initial and periodic i,,"'rferencea. &Yllem check. and [a"brolion lesl procedures lpacified In 40 CFR 80. Subparl 0 may be v.ed in lie u of Ihe prm;cdurel specified ill thll st:cliun.

27 A new 1116.13Z4~ 18 added and ",ada •• follow,;

t ... 132..... C8rtKIn dioxide ....... caIIbr8tIQn.

!'rior III II. Inlroduclion inlo aervlce ~I\d mllnthlY'lllIlreufler the NDIR carbon tllll~ide anulyur shall be calibraled al f"llows:

(u) Follow the manufaclurer', Ulstl'udionB for inslrumenl atart·up and ""l·rulinn. Adjullthe analyzer to (lplimi~c p"rformlince.

(") z .. '" Iho carbon dioxide analyzer " i Ih either zero·srade air or &IIro-lrade nltruH~n.

(el C"I,"rule on lach aotlll.lly UIId llpuralinll ranll" wilh carbon dioxide In N. Cijhlnulion IU18' havlnl nominal ~ol\cllnlrution. of 15. 30, 45. 60.15. and

• \10 pureenl of Ih"l fllnge. Additional ( ... hhraliull poinle milY be seneraled. For "uo;h n.nse culibraled. if Ihe deviation frum II Icasl'I'lliarU be.l·fltllrala/!lline iij 2 !lurecnl of le811 of Ihe value al lach .1 .. 1 .. pOIOI. coneenlralion values may be L •• lo:ul .. \",1 ~ UijU of 1\ lillille calibration f"dur fur Ihul ran8e. If Ihu dcvlatton e~""etll 2 percenl .. 1 ullY poinl. Ihe be.l· f,l non·lin!!"r equetion which repre.enta IllI! duh, lu within 2 percenl of each lelt 1'01111 .hull be used 10 dulermine cuncBnlrulion.

Idl The Inihdl .. nd periodIC Interferencel. 'Y Ilem cheel.. imd calibration le81 proU:dUrc8 speciried in 40 CFR 88. Subpurl D muy be u~cd in lieu of the procedures ill Ihis sec lion.

:.III. A new 186.1325-86 is lidded und reserved liB follows:

.... , ...... IR • ..."edl 28. A new I iI6.132&.a6 is added and

reud. al follows

.... lu.-eI CaIIbr.1lon 01 0"'" ....._1&. Other 1.11 equipmenl uacd for lealinl

IhaD be calibraled III of len III required by dI. lIIanufaclurer or neceaaary according to lood pra<.:lice.

30. A new 186.1327-86 i. added and read a. folio",,:

.... ,321 ... EngInadr-.., .... ,",,11IIne; - ......

(a) The enlllOe dynumomeler le.I procedure ia dClt&JICd 10 delermine Ihe brake-Ipecific emluion IIf bydrocarboll8. carboa mooD}l.ide. oxide. of llitrosen. lad particulale (die8llla only). Tha lell procedure COII.I.I. of a dcold" Ilarl lell following either aalural or forced cool-down periodl described In II 88.1334-86 and 86.133s-a&. relpecllvely. A "bol" alart teal followl Ihe "cold" ,1"rtle.I IIfler It hoi loak of ZIO mlnules. The Idle lest of Subpart P lIIay be run after Ihe "hoi Itart" teat. Thu e"hauII eOlI.aion. are diluled with ambienl .. ir and a continuoul proportional sample is collecled for enaly ... durlnl bolh Ihe cold. and hOI ,Iart leltl. The compoallu .umplea collecled ani anulyzed either In b.g. or continuou.ly for hydrocarbons (He). cllrbon monoxide (CO). carbon diQlllde (CO.). and oxide. or nitrolen (NOJ. In addition. for die.el. only. partlcu ..... are collecled on nuorocurbon coaled IlaSl fiber fillera or nuorocarbon baled (membrane) f11lera and tha dilution air II prelillered.

(b) Engine lurque lind rpm ahall be recorded continuously durins both the cold and hoi Il8rl lesl •. Del. pam" Ihall be recorded aileusl once every .acolld.

(e) U'ing Ihe lorque und rpm reedback IllInall Ihe brak .. horeepowar I. inlelrated wilh relpl'(;1 10 lime fur Ihe cold and hOi cycle •. Thi. produce. a brake hutlepowilr·hour vlllue lhal enBbllt1 Iho brakll"pct:iflc emi"lona 10 be del ermined (lea 1116.1)44-66. Calculallon.: exhaual ,·milaion.,.

Idlll) When an III1l1ine la 1".lod for exhauII emll,ion. or i» oper"led for 1en'lce accumulullon on 1111 eDlline dynamomeler. Ihe complela eJlline .hall be I .. ted. with all eminion conlrol devlcellnslulled dnd funclionil18.

(2) Evaporalive emis8ion conlrola need not be connecled if dlllu are proVided to .how Ihllt normal operliling conditions are mainlained In the engine induction .yalem.

(3) On air cooled enainea. the fun shall be inslalled.

(4) Addllional accessories (il.g .. oil cooler..allemalors. air comptllssor&. etc.1 may IN In.lalled with advance approval by Iha Admlnistralor.

(5) The el18ine must be equipped with a production Iype starler.

Ie) Means of ensine cooling which will mainlain the el18ine operalin8 tempera lures (e.g .. inlake lIir. 011. wiOter. elc.) at opproximolely Ihe same lemperalure as specified by Ihe manufacturer .holl be uaed. Au"iliary fan(s) may be used 10 mainlain engine cooling durina operation on Ihe dynamomeler. Only water is allo",,·d as an engine·coolanl medium. Rust Inhibitors and lubrication additi,,,s may be used. up 10 Ihe levels recommended by the additive manufaclurer. Antifreeze lIIixture. (e.l" ethylene Ilycol. alcohols) and olher coolanls Ihal would enhance heullransfer are ,pacifically prohibited.

10 Exhou.' ayelem. A chesis-type exhau8t sy.tem shall be used which il alabilized with le8peello emi8sions. The exhau81 ayslem .hall meel Ihe followins requirement.:

(1) For ell celalY8t and trap·o"ldlzer syslema. Ihe dis lance from Ihe exhausl manifold nal18e(s'10 Ihe calalysl or Irap.oxidizer shall be Ihe 8ame as in the \'ehicle t:onfiguration unles8 Ihe mdnufacturer provide. dala ahowinl equivalent performance al anolher locution.

(2) The exhau.1 hack pressure or rellrlctlon ahall be Iyplcal of thole seen In Ih. ectnl vehicle elChauat syslem cOllfiluralion or Ihe back pressure sh*t II be the manufeclurer', recommended

.mexlmum exhall.lt beck prenure limit. (3) For oil diesel el18lnel. the distance

from the exhault manilold nange to Ihe exit of the dw .. lI-type .xIIauII .yslem .haD be • lIIaxla\ll1l of 12 feel.

31. a new 186.1328-88 iladdod and reserved al rollows: .... , .... 1"-'Y.o1

32. A new 1 86.1329--00 i. addud and reseMlud us follows: IM.lut-III IR .... I

33. A new 1 88.13JIHIU il added aa rcuds Itl followl: t ".1330-11 THI.....-. ~ ,~ ...

(a) The lell sequencllilhown In Filllre 1\:116-12 Ihow. the mllior ,leI'S encounlored al tha 'e.lllnsin" ulldersoe. the procedure. 'libill'lUenlly delClibed. ..... _--

Federal R:£:ter I Vol. 46. No.4 I WedneldllY. January 7. 1911 I Proposed Rule. 1951








80 HR. MAX









- 85 -

195a Federal R8(&iaW I Vol. 46. No.4 I WedneldllY. 'llnuery 7. 11161 I Propoeed Rulee

lui Th .. ner"lIe temperllture of the engine mlll"e lIir lind CVS dilullon elr .hall be mainlliined It 25· C :t a· C 177"I'! 9' I'llhrolJ8hout Ihe telt • equence. EngIne. with 8uxililul' "mIllion control devicel which are lemperalure dependt!nt le.g .. chokel. air cl",mer. h"t air door •. elc.) _hllll be IU810d at lin averllie IImblenl lell ceU lemporalure 25' C ± S'C throlJ8hout the 1".1 sequence •• xcepl .. Doled In , 86.13J!HI6.

Ie) No conlrol of amblenl or eVI dilution air humidity II nqulred. Enaine inla". air humidity Ihall not exceed. grains of waler per pound of dry air:

(d) The Idle le.1 of Subpan P may be rUII aflur completion of tile bot aIar1 exhuuII emission leal. If app)iClble.

Ie) The b",ronlettic pre.aure observed durins Ihe Bonerallon of the _"wum lorque cl,rve .haU pot deviate IIIOle than I in. 1111 from Ihe value --.d .• t the 1"'lIinning o( Ihe mlp. The bM.romatri8 I"e'lurl! observed durina the a"hault ',"lIsaion lell shall nol davlale _ Ihan t In. lIB from the \llIlue me.aured al IIII! Lcginllil18 of the eml.,IOD 1811. 11Ie avcwgu burometrlc prea.we observed during the eKhllull mislion le'l muat be wilhin t ill. lIB of the average obaeved during th" mallimum 10l'1jue curv. Melll:relion.

III Dwsel E'Willes UII!}·. Air Inlet and ,,~h8ult reslriclions _hell be .ot to "'pfllaenl Ihe u verage realrktlona which would Le secn In uae in 8 reprelenaU\le IIpplicalil)n. Inll'l depre •• lon and ""haull bacJ.presaurc aha II be eel wllA Ihe engine operating II 1 m .. "imum hUI'H.,ptlwcr.

34. A new t 116.1331~ i8 lidded lind "·b .. r~ud 118 [olluws:

t 86. '33.-18 I Re..,wed 1 35. A new I 8II.lJ32~ i, added and

fI'uds 88 follows.

t If. '332-18 Engine 1IIafItIinII1I'0CIBCIIn-. (.,) Mounl lesl cngine on the engine

d~'rhlmnml'h!r. Ih) D~lcrmilll' minimum mupping

hl"""t. (I) C" .• "I"I/· I,,,,b' ell.II""·." The

IIIII)lIIIUIII nHlppinli s"ccd .hall be 1.,luIIIIII'II from Ih" following equation.:

III MInimum Sl'el'd . Curb Idle RPM­;!I~I RPM: or

1111 MillilllUIll Sp,·od:· 400 RPM. \\ 11IdlC\",of .S Hrt~ut .. r,

I:.!) Oif',,)t'} t'"gi/Ul~'. The minimum 1II"l'l'illll "1",.·,1 8hull be r. .. lcululed from IIII' fulluWIIlIII'LIUilIi0118:

III Minimum Sp""d = Low Idle RPM­~"I J(PM. "r

I" I Mill imum Speed ·400 RI'M. \\ hll 111'\ I'r is gumtcr.

1t.1 Ik"'"lIin" IlII1"imum mupping 110".""1. .

III Guilulm,.·(ut!/t!</lil for ungoverned enamel Ihe ma,,,mum

~u.u. Speed • Curb 14l. "" •

(ii) F0l80~erned engines Ihe maximum mapped sp"ed aball be either thai ,peed al which Ihe wide open throltle Iol'que drops off 10 zero. or thit ."1.'" ~ a. calculaled for

~ .. u.u. S,.ed • Curb Idle IPM •

Iii I For lovemad engines the maxlmwn mapping .peed ahaU be either thel ,peacl at which wide open IbroUla 10l'qUII drape off to zero. or the maKimum apeed e, calculated for unaovemed elllin8l. whichever ia .maller.

(d) Delermin. maximum Inrqllll CIIrve (I. ..... p the engine).

(t) Durlna enalne wllrm·up. the eoaina may be ope/'llted .uch Ihal a preUmlnary •• limale 01 melliured raled .peed CIA be mad •.

(21 GoMNi_llMlllld plli/inu. (il SIa ... th ..... Ine and operalfl al zero load In ~ with the manufacturer', • Ia"'-up aDd werm·up procedurel for t minul. ::t 30 aecondl.

(II) Operate the engine al a 101'1ju. equivalenlto tOJ: 3 percenl of Ih.·moal recent delerminalion of mulmum torque for. minutel ± 30 aecond. el ZOOOrpm.

rili) Operale th .. engine "I a 10l'1jue "quillaleol to 56 J: 5 .... rcenl of Ibe IIIGBt recent delermlnation of nl8,dmum lorque fOf 35 minules ± 1 mlnule at :woo rpm.

Ilv) O""rale Ihe enline "I idle. I~) Op,:nl" Ihe Ihrottle fully. Ivll While ,UII muinillinilifl wide·open

Ihrottle und full·load obtain minimum enliine speed. Mllinl .. in minimum engine Ipeed for 15 second •. Record the a\NIIIII! lorque during the t"al 5 seconds.

Ivii) In no 8f8alcr th"n 100 RPM Incremenls. d"lermine Ihe muximum lor'luo eu"" from minimum splled 10 ruu"imum apued. lIold "dLh lell point for 15 aecond. and record Ihe "verage lor'lue OVer Ih .. 1 ... 1 5 MOI.Olllls.

("ill) Allt-rnult! ""'JljI"'.~ 1,'( hllivue I" plllc:e of (dIl211vi) un,1 l\'Iil"l.Jove. II clInl inuul aweep of RPM is !llIowed. While opurlilinil H\ "'itll! "p"n Ihrottle. Ihu "nllil1l: speed I. inl:l'<';18"d til a wlIIlanl 8 RI'M/.ccund I"'! 1 RI'M/ 8e~ond) fl'lllll minimum 'pIIIIY to m~ximum II",ed. S!,el!" "nd lorque pUlRla .h"1I be rec;ord.,d III a IlImpll! C .. ",

of ul Icasl one polnl P'" oCI:ond. Ilxl Rccakulille minamulll und

maximum ,pllcde p .. f Ibllli lind Icllllll)

milPPllllepeed IhMII be CIIlculllled from Ihe fOUOWlllllllju,IIHJ111:

I" (!teAluect C .. rD) hc-.1 IP" - td Ie RPM too

ungoverned alllines. whichever i. smailer.

(2) Dieae/-flngines. Ii) For ungoverned enslnes Ibe maximum mllppill8 spl!ed shall be oaIoalaled from the follOWing equation:

113 (Ma •• ur.. c..rb "ud RPM Id l. IlPlf>

100 or Iii) of thl ... ctlon using the mellaured rated speed dBrived from the new IlUlXlrnum tarqua curve. If either of the new minimum or maximum speeds IllY oulside the renge of -.-de encompa .. ed by the actual mup. then the Dlap abaD be coll8ldered void. The antlre naapplna procedures shoil be repeuted, uaJna the Dewly derived measured /'Iliad ,peed In all culculallona.

13J Diesel 11RIJ.i- (i) Slarl Ihe enslne and operele al free idle for 2 10 3 minute ..

Iii) Operete the engine at approximately IiO percenl power al Ihe pUllk torque speed for 5 to 7 minules .

(iii) 0,.... .. the ensine al raled speed and wide open throlile for 25 1030 miDule ..

(iv) Option. lila permilled 10 pre­condition the engine at ruled speed and mBll.imum horsepower unlillhe oU lind water temperature, are siubilized. The lemperlilurea are defined as slabilized if they ere mallllainacl within 2 percent of poinl for 2 mlnul ... The engine musl be opcrlllied II minimum of 10 mlnules for Ihil option. This optional procedure may be substiluled for step (Ui).

Iv) Unload the enalne and operule III Ihe low idle speed.

liv) Operale Ihe 8I1gi",: al wide opcn Ihrollie and minimum engine ."eed. Increase the engine .peed III ;I constant rule of 8 RPM/second I ±I RPM/second) from minimum 10 maximum sp .. ed. Engine apeed and IOI'1jI\t' pOint. shllil be r .. corded al 8 sllmple rllill of ill !tH,sl one puinl per second.

(~iil Recalculale minimulll und muximum speedB per 1t,IIZ) und leItZ)li) ur li'l of Ihi. section usiny Ih" mellsurcd rall,J speed derived from Ihtl IlIIW

m"xunum lorque cur~". If eith,,!' of lhe Ol'W. minimum or mllllimunl speeda IllY oulslde Ihe runge of speeds I'ncumpaesed by Ihe lIeluul ",up. Ihen tI", IlIHp shall be conlld4'I'ull .iud. The .. nlll~ mupping procudUl'e .hall be rl'p .... led. uling Ihe newly dUfivlld nw.,.ured raled speed in ull eulculalion.. .

Ie) Mapping curve IIl1n~rulillll.

- 86 -

F'ecIeNlRepter I Vol. 46. No.4 I Wednesday. January 7. 1981 I Propoled Rule.

11) Go.olirr,.-fueled engJnetl. II) Fit all da'a JIOlnts recorded lU1der Id)(2)(vl) and Ivill of Ihls 8ecllon (100 RPM increments) wllh II cubic Ipllne IPchnlque.

(II) All point. seneraled under the contlnpoll8 RPM sweep by .Iep Id)(2)(vt) and (vIII) shall ba cOMecled by linear Interpolation belween JIOlnll.

(1111 For governed engine •• oil polnta above the maximum speed (,ee IcJ(ll(lI) of Ihi. accllon) sh.1I be ... Isnad maximum lorque valuell of ~ero ror pUrpOSIlS of cycle 8t1neration.

(Ivl For all enslne8. all speed poIot. bl'low 400 RPM shall be aSllaned a maximum lorque value equal to that o".erved nt 400 RPM for purposes of cycle generation.

Iv) The torque curve re811111118 from SlflP (i)throuah (Iv) I. the mappll18 curve ~nd will be uled 10 conver! the n:"'mMlized torque values I .. the enstne cycle (see Appendixl. f) to aclual torque VAlu .. s (or the Ipst cycle.

(21 Diesel-elllJinflll. II) Connect all data polnl8 recol'ded under (dI13) (vi) and (vii) of this lection ualng linear inlcrpolallon between polnla.

(III For governed engine •. all poInts altove the maximum apeed (see (c)(21{IIJ of thlll aectlon] ,hall be aasl8ned maximum lorqua volues of zero for purposee of cycle genera lion.

(iii) For all engines. ull speed point, below 400 RPM shall be 888lgned a maxImum torque value equal to thai ob.erved at 400 RPM (or purposea of rycle seneration.

!Iv) The lorque curve resulting from atr,p' (II through (Iii) I, the mapping curve lind will be uaed to convert Ihe "OmlRIi2:cd torque \'alues in the engine cycle C."" Appp.ndix 1,81 klto actual Inrque values for !hl! leat cycle.

(f) IIllemote mapping and moppilllJ (:ur"e generation technique,. If a m~nufacturer believes that the above Il1npptng technique. are unRoll! or IInrr>preaentalive for any given engine or p.n~tnn family. 911emate mapping It·chnl'!I1,,. may be used. Alternate ".chni'll"'. mAy be used only If Hpproved in advance by Ihe I\.tminlstralor. And only If the Ailmlnlatralor Judges that change to be jualiOed. lind Ihl' ullum"te procedure 10 be Irchnically c.orrect.

30.1\ new § 86.133~86 is added lind rcud. ao follow.'

i ".1333-(111 T .. "II&nt t .. , eye" pne .. tlon.

lal Th ... heavy dllty transienl engin .. r:ycleH fur gosoline- and di.,gel-fueled enllin.·, urI! listed in Appendix I (f and Itl. Th" •• second· by-second liatings ore d .... ignl,d 10 r~present Iranslenl lorque pnd RPM !nflMuvers charuclerlstlc of

heAvy-duty vehicles. Bolh RPM and (11 To unnormnli7.e RPM USI' the torque lire normalized In these lIatina-. folio wi", equation:

Actual RPM- l~(Me •• ured !!ted RPM • Cur_ Idle 11M) • Curb Idle 100

(Curb idl. tor dia.al en,in .. i, daf'ned I. the tow idle RP~.)

12) Torque I, normalized to the maximum torque 81 the RPM IIsled wllh II. Therefore. 10 unnormalize the torque \'alue8 In Ihe cycle. the maximum lorque curve for Ihe engine in question mUll be used. The genera lion of the mllximum lorque curve is described in § 86.1332.00.

10) Example of Ihl1l1nnormalizolion pmcedure. The (ollowinH tp.sl point .hall be unnorma lI~od:

_AI'M Pw· ---

Thr le8t engine. have these values: Mealured Ralod RPM = 3800 IDoe. not

appear on IIlven torque curve.' Curb Idle RPM ~ 000. Maximum lorqoe curve a. ilh •• traled In

fl811nt N~13. Calculate IJCtl/oJ RPM: I\clu.J RPM "'percent RPM (Me.sured

Ralrd RPM-Idl, RPMJ/too .. Idle RPM Actual RPM - 43(38OO-«JUJ/l00" tKIO Actual RPM ~ 1976 Determine! lIc/l/nl tOrqUfO: • Detenntne thu maximum torque AI 1978

RPM From Fltunt N.,3. Thrn multiply Ihl. uluel358 h.lbl by 0.82. Thi. ",.ull. In nn actual torque 01 %1M h·lb .. Ia1.*8 COOl! __



;;; ~ It -w ::l o a: ~




. 329


.. "'" -

./ ..... "-v. \ / ,

I K . .



J '\ / \ ~

, \ J

I ./ \ -~ 1\

\ i\

800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200




t It. lIa

i I' .. -<: ~

~ Z !' ~ -:;: ~ ~


= -..,J

~ GO ~ II> ~ ';" = I: II> .:! ~ .. ! -.

f c:Io

" c: -m

- 88 -

Federal Real.ter I Vol. 46, No.4 I Wednfl8day, January 7, 198t I Proposed Rules 1158

(e) BRahm .peed and lorque .holl be recorded al leasl once every second durinll .he cold .Iarl te.t and hot slort tosl. The torqua 8nd RPM feedback Rignals may be eleclrlcally fillered.

(d) Gasoline-fue/ed engines. 'I1Ie lIero perc!!nt .peed lpeclned In the galollne­lucll'd engine cycle (Appendix I (f)) ahall be lupefccded by pro!Jf!r operation of the engines automatic choke.

(1) Durin/! automotfc choke operation 8 manuallransml8sion engine shall be a\low"d 10 Idle III whalever .peed Is required It') produce 8 feedback lorque of o ft-Iba ± 10 ft-Ib. (using for examplo cJu!eh disengagement, .peed to torque con Irol switching, .orlware overrides, "Ie 1 AI !hoae poin'. In Appendix I where buth ralerence speed and reference torqlll' ore lero pt!n:ent VII lues,

1:'1 During aulomalic choke operation "" "ulonmtic tranumisslon engine shall I", u!lowed to Idle al whalever speed II required to produ"" d feedback to"lue of err' it-Ibs t 10 R-lhs (S88 (el(2tof thll !'cellon for definition of CfITlat those poln .. In Appendix I where both reference speed and refl'rence torque Rre zero percent valuel.

(3\ 11.;8 automatic choke high Idle allowance II permitted onl, for the nrst 150 8econd~ of Ihe cold cycle and the first 30 seconds or lI.e bol cycle. after which Ihe cycle. IIhall be nUl II specified in AplM'ndlx I (f). [See 86.1341-86 ror Rllowance,In the cycle nlldatlo" crilerla.)

(el Automatic TronsmlBfllonB, The rf!femnce cycle. Appf!tldlx I {£ and 8J shall be altered for en,lne. Intended for use with "ulomaUc transml .. ions.

(1) ?r,ro percent lpeed for automallc transmission engines I, deflnP.d a. curb idle RPM, I.!". In-vehicle, coupled with au'omatic transmission In 88mr.

(2) All zero-Pl'rc:t!nl lpeed, zero­percent torque polnll (Idl. poInl_l.hall be modified to zero percent _peed. X

percanl '"rque. U,lns til' manufecturers' 81'eClficd curb Idle Irenml"lon torque (eI1T). the maximum lorqu. Ryallable .,1 trw curb idle (I.e .. with trenslllle.lon! RPM HS determined from the maXImum torque elirve senellited In • 118.133~, x p~rc~nt Imque i8 doflned per the [ollowing equallon:

. , . ctTT • 100 ~\.4IJlUoUil l'orqu ... t Curb tell. Ir..

~7 1\ new 186_131~-1\6 is added Bnd reods lI8 follows:

~ 1MI.1334-N "'--I ... engine and dynoln~ "' ..... .....,.

Control Bytllem calibration, \a) Berore the cold 80ak or cool down. final

calibration of the dyn8momf!ter and Ihrollie conlrol systems may he performed, Thele calibrations may con,I,t of steady·alul" operation and/or aelual practice cycle runs, bul omlaalon. may not be measured,

(bl Following any practice runs or colibrallon procedures, the engine _hall be tumed off and allowed 10 either cold loak at eo' to oo'F for a minimum of 1% hours, or be cooled per' 118.1335-4,

38, A new I 88.133!H16 Is added and readl III follows:

, ... ,sss-t1 0.,"-\ fOrced cool dOAlI Plac.d .....

(al Thll forced cool-down procedure appliee to bolh gasoline and dlesel­rueled enslnes,

(bl No .ubstances or flulda may be applied 10 the engines Intemol or eXlernalaurfoces except Cor water and air, and only a8 preacrlbed In (cland (dl of Ihl. leclion.

(cl For water,cooled engines two typel of cooling are perml\Ied.

(1) Water may be clrculaled through the -stne's water coolant syatem.

(i) The cooling waler may be flowed In either direction and 01 any desired flow rate, The thermos tal may be removed or blocked open durllllllhe cool down but mu.1 be realored before the exllall.t emlllions lesl begins,

(iI) The tempera lure of Ihe clrculaled or Injected waler ,hall be between 10' C 150" F) and 30' C (88' F),

(IU) No fluid except waler and no fluid or ,ubelanea In solution with water Ie permitted, This doe. nol preclude Ihe Ule of • building" atandard water aupplJ for Con:ed cooI·down p~el,

\2) F10wl of air may be dlrecled ,I the exlerior of the engln.,

(I) Air .hall be directed uniformly over the entire exterior ,W'race of the engine al any deelroeJ flow rele.

(li) '111. temperalure of the coull", air shall Dot exceed 30' C (118" F). '1111_ 'I the only oc:cellon whan leel ceO ambient .Ir lempeoture may dOvlate from the genon" .peclflcetlonl .. t forth In • 86.133O-811(bJ.I.e" may be I ... Iban 'IJY' C (68' P). _

(dJ Par air-oooled llftlllneo only cooll", •• preacrlbed In (cK!) of thlt eecHon I, pt'rmilted,

(e) 'I1Ie cold qcle eMault emllslon tes\ may bealn aller a forced cool down only.when the engine 011 temperature al measured at the dlp,tlck I. betwMn 20" C and 24' C (06' Fend 75" F), No englne oil chanse Is permitted durlna the le.t sequence, nor II eny direct or Indirect coollll1l of enslne all permitted except by natunll conducllon and convection allOdated with the procedUJ'IIII In ( c) And (d) of Ihls lecllon.

(0(1) The cold cycle l'"hnllBt eml.~lon lesl lor ,,"Iollne engines !!quipped with catalytic converters may bl'lIln ofl~r a forced cool down only whl'n the CIIIAly.1 bed trempernture allhe calalysl oullel IA 25' C±S' C (77' F±9' F), In oddltlon to the lemperolure restriction In (e) of thlw .eclion,

(z) Ca.alyst cool down mllY be accomplished In whatever manner and using whAlever coolant deemed approprlale by proper engineering ludlP"ent. The calalY81, englnl', and .xhausl piping configurations Ihall no. be separated, altered, or moved In any way during the cool down,

(sl Allha completion of the forced cool down, allsencral requirpments spectned in 1 86.1330-86 Bnd the all temperature Ipecification sel rorth In (e) of this lection must be met berore the cold cycle exhauat emiRS Ion lest may begin,

39. A new 186.1336-86 Is added and raeds BI follows:

, ... IUI-M Engine .wtIng' and rwtartIng.

(a) GOBoline-fueled engines, Thil parellfaph applies 10 guollne-fueled engine, only, ,

(1) The engine ,hall be st81'ted with a productJon engine starler molor eccordlng to the manufac'turerA recommended .tarting procedures In .he owner's manllal. The 24±1 lecondfree idle period shall begin wh!!n Ih. engine Ilarta,

(Z) Choko operation: (I) ErtaInes equipped with aUlomatic chokel .hall be opt!raled according to the manufaeluter', operating instructions In the owner's menual, Including choke seltln& and "kick· down" from cold fa81 Idle,

(II) Enginel equlppP.d with manoel chokn ahaU be opere led acchrdlnsto the manufacturer' I opera ling In,tructlons In the owner', mAnual,

(3) The opera lor ma,. use the choke, throttle, ate. where necessary to keep the enaine runnlng.

(of) If the manufacturer's operallns In,trucUons In the owner'i manual do not _peclfy a warm engine starting procedure, the engine (automatlc- and manual-choke engines) ehall be Itarted by depre .. 11II1h4I throttl. half way and cral'lklns tbe engIne unlllil Itarl •.

{bl DietleJ enain/l/l, 'I1Ie engine shall be ,Iarted with a production enslne Ilartina-molor accord11lllo Ihe manufacturer', recoqpnended Ilorling procedW'81lID the oWDClr', manuel. The 24t1 _d he Idle period shall begin when the engine lllU'la.

(cJ(11 U the engine doel qot Ilart after 15 aecondl of crankl&la, Cfllnkllll_hall cease and Ihe reelOl\ lor flillure 10 Itarl

- 89 -

1956 federal Rqiater I Vol. 46. No.4 I WednesdllY. January 7. 1981 I Propoeed Rules

• hull ue delermined. The Sid flow 1111!i1huring device (or revolution counler) .m Ih. con.ldnl \lolume IlJIlpler (and lb. hydrocarbon inlegralor and particulale .lImple pump!s) when lealina di .... vchit;lea, .eo I 118. I 337\.£naine dynllmomeler le.1 run) Bbllll be lurned ocr durins Ihis dillgnostic period. In addition. eilher Ihe CVS .hould be Ilirned of( or Ihe exbau.sllube dlsconneo;led from "'II lailpipe durlna Ihe di ..... oalic period. If failure 10 .tart is on uperaUonll1 error, Ihe ellline ahaU be rellChedu1ed for lealina from a c:old a&art.

(2) If 10R8er cfllRkina 11m_ are rucommonded 10.lbli ultimate putehuar, HII(;b crankina limet may be ued provided Ibll oWllBr'a manual 8DCl th. service "'Pllir maDuallndlcate the longer Cl'1III1Una tlmll" .... normal. and If I ho use 01 the luoaer crllJlldai tiJQea II IIpproved ia advan~ by the Admlni~lralol'.

(3) If a failure to.tart occun duriDl I he culd porlion of the I_t aad I. c:atlled by un engine malfunction, correcllve ueliul1 of len Ihall 30 mlnule. duration may he laken (dceprding 10 I 88.OM-2Il), alld Ihe lesl continued. The Nmpllns ,y~lem shall be reactivated al the aame tmlC crunking begins. When the eJ18lne slllrts. Ihl' timing sequence lItall begin. If Llilurc 10 alarl is caused byenstne lIIalfunctiun and Ihe engine ~nnol be stulled, Ihe le~1 shlill be voided and corrective action may be laken uccordlng to § 116.084-25. The ",880M for Ihe malfunction (if determined) BOd Ih" corrective a'clion t .. ken .hall be r~porled 10 the Administrator.

(4) If II ("ilure to slart OCCUri durina IIIIl hoi alllri portion of Ibe lesl and I. "allfted by engine mlilfunction. Ihe "II)!lnc mual be slerted within one rnilllllU of hy on. The sampling ay.lem .hallLe reHchvllled al the lII1IIe time CJ'lInklnll bf!l!ins. When Ihe engine alarll, II", Irllnelenl engine cyde liming ""'Iu"nC8 shall besin. If Ihe engine ~.lIlnol be slorled wilhin one minute of k.·v un. Ihe lesl shall be \Voided, 1:"lTccli~e uction laken, (occordlna to i tJt;.01l4-25), ond Iho engine rescheduled r,,1' lasUII8· The reason for Ihe .... "functiun (If delermined) and the 'OITediv8 oetion luken shull be reported I .. Ihe Admlnl.lralor.

Idlillhe engine "fnlse slartB," Ihe "1,,,n,lur 8hall repeallhe recommended 01,'1'11I11l procedure (such as reaelling the dlOk .. , .. t[;·I·

1"1 J:'/lJluw .'ulling (1) If Ihe engine .loJlI~ during Ih" Inlliol idlll period of ,,,Ih ... Ihe cult! or hoI starl leal, Ihe I'nllini' ahall hu reslarled Immedlalel)! u.11l8 Ihe IIpproprlale cold or hot slarling I'r'lLoejufllllnd Ihe le~1 continued. It the "n"lne cannol ue slurled before the first

non-'dle record of the cycle, the tesl shull be voided.

(2) II the engiDe 81ull. unywbere in thll cold c~c1t1, lIltC8pl in Ihe inilial idle period. tbe teal ahall be voided.

(3) It lhe enaine slolls on Ihe hot cycle portion of the teel al an)! tilDe up 10 and ioc1udina 580 seconds Inlo the hal cycle. Ihe engiae mlly be shul off and resoake'd for .20 minutes. The hal cycle may Ihen be rerun. ADy stelling of the engine or voidina of the hot cycle more than 5IiO aeconds inlo tbe hoI cycle shall resull in a void le.1. Omy one hoi slart resoak and reatut I. permilled.

40. A new 186.1337-8(1 ia added end reada .. follows:

, ... 1317 ... Enetne~ .... run.

(a) The following sleps ahall be lakeD for cach lest:

(I) Prepare the engine. dynamomeler. and 8ampllna syslem for Ihe cold alart lesls. Chanae faltere, elc. lind leak ahec:k as nece •• ary.

(2) Connacilivacuutod sample collection bag. to Ihe dilute eldiaull and dilution air lample collection sysllJlls.

13) Starl the CVS (If not already on), the Nmple pumpa, excepl Ibe diesel particulate aample pump(s), If applicable. the IllIDperalure recordar. Ihe en,Blne coolina fan(.' and any data collection IY81elll (I.e., chart recordera. compulera, date l088era, clc.). The heel exchanger of Ihe conslant volume sumpler (If uBed), and Ihe healed component. of any continuoul samplina .ystem(s) (If applicable) shall be prehealed to their respective operating temperaturel before the te81 begins. See I 88.1304-88{e) for contlnuoua sampling procedure •.

(4) Adju.t Iho sumple now rates 10 Ihe desired Row rele end let Ihe evs aaa now mealUring devices to zero. NIIIe.-c~'V-CVS aumple nuw rale II nx .. d

by Ihe veDI,," de.'1IIL (5) Allach Ihe CVS nllxible eldiaWlI

lube to ellSlne lailpipe(s). (6) Carefully lnalall a clean partlculale

sample filler Into each of the filter holders for diesellesls. The fillers musl be handled wllh forceps or 10R8" ~h or abrallve niter handlina will resuilin erroneous weigh I delcrmlnlltiOn.

• (7) Follow Ihe mllnulaclurer'a choke and Ihroltlo Inalructions for cold .Iarling. Simultaneously .turllbe enaina und begin exbllullllnd dilution air sampling. For die.ul engines, lum on the hydrocarbon, colltinuous NO., CO, or CO, (if used) IInul)lZcr(.) IYliem inlegrulor(l) and lurn on tbe particulale lample pumpl lind indicullI the .tarl of Ihe IeII on thll dulil collecllon medllllD (I.e .. mllrk Ihe chllrl on II chllrl recordar,

sel a bytl .... compuler or data logger . elc.).

(8) A. soon a8 illl determinad Ihal Ihe enalne is IlartecI, .lart a "free idle" limer.

(9) Allow the engine to Idle freely with nu-Ioad for zt±1 aeconda. This idle period for automaUc transmission englnel may be Inlerpreled aa an idle speed In neutral or park. All olher idle condi liona lhall be Interpreted as an idle speed In sear. It is jIIIrmisslble to IU8 Ihe engine dowlI to curb idle speed durina the leal 8 aecoDda of the free Idle period for the plll'JlO8e of engaging dYDamollllltar c:ontrolloops.

(10) Begin the tranalenl engiae cycles BUch lhat the first non-Idle record of the cycle OCCW'l al 26±1 seconda. The free Idle time ia included In the 26±1 seconda. Note.~n8 diesel tC81in8. adjusl the

sample pump(l) 10 Ihat the now rale Ihrough the parllcul.ale la",pIe probe or tranller tube la malalaiDed II a co_I .. llle wlihin ±5 pClQIIlt 01 tba IBt Dow rate. Record the average temperature aDd preOOIll'tl al the 831 ",elu(a) 01 Dow IMlnllllentation Inlel. U the .. I now rale cannol be maintained beo;auae of high parUcuJal8loadia8 ollihe mler. th. le.1 ohall be tenalneled. The tesl shan be rcrun uslns lower now rale an.d/oz 8 larger diameter '\ller.

111) On th.la,1 record of the cycle cease lampUna. Immedialely tum Ihe enaine ofr. and .Iart a hoi aoak limer. Fur diesel ell8inel immediately after Ihe engine slopa running. aimultaneously lurn off Ibe ga. Row meusurill8 device!s) and the diesel hydrocarbon inlagralor, mark Ihe bydrocarbon recorder chari, and tum off the particulate samplll pump(a).

(12) Immedialely after the eosine .ia lurned off, turn off the engine cooling I,m(a) U UMd. and the CVS blower. A. soon 118 poaaibla Iran.fer Ihe "cold atarl cycle" exhaust and dilUtion air bag lample. to !be IInal)!tlelll system and proceu Ihe samples acc0rdia8 10 I 83.1~ oblainlnt. ltabll\aed readill8 olth. eldiaual 'ample on all analyzers within 20 minule. of the end of Ihe .. mple collecUon pblls, Ilf Iha lesl. For die .. 1 engiaea cal'(lhdly remove euch parllculale sample ru'er frQIR II. holder and place each In a petri dl,h, and COver.

(13) Allow the engine to SUlik for ZO :t 1 minulea.

(HI Prepare Ihe engin!llllld d}'namometer for Ihe hoi u~rlle61.

(15) Conoecl e\lacualllil SIlmplli cullection bllS' 10 Ihe dllullI ellhllu61 ~d dilution air Hample collection eya!ema.

(16) Slart the CV8111 ""t al .... Ii .. on), Ihe sample pump' (eIlllliPllhe.diotlll partlculat. aampl. PI&lllIiI .• ~. If. appllCllbll), Iha 1a1llPlJJ41Ui'1 ~lIf,

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Federal Reate I Vol. 46, No.4 I Wednesday, Janua.." 'T, 1981 I Pmpoeed Rules 1117 2!2!! . _____ .

1 Ill' rnllln". coollnll fon(l) and any dlltl c"lIeelion "),slem (I.e" chart recordl!ra. wmputerw. rlatll IOiller •. etc.). The hell I !'xGha11llcl' of the ennltllnl volume Hllmpler (if und) and the haaled components of any conUnuou. INIIDplil1l "Yltem(s) (if nppllcBbhl) ahan be preheated 10 their respectlvll oplll'lltlll8 I .. mperllwrea bpfore 'he lot' beslm. See § 1IIl.134~(r.1 for conlinuoOl IImpHna procIlduteR.

(17) Arljllillhe sample now ra&etl to th .. deAlred now rale and llel!he CVS 1/,,8 nnw meosurlng devices 10_1'0.

'Ilole,-GFV-eVS lample 11_ ..... t. nlled !" Ih. ,.nrun rieettn,

(Hit r.arefully Inllall a c1eln [,lIllIeIlIAIt' tiller Into etlch of the mter h .. lder. for dieIPllesl •. The tllttll'l mllst \Jp handled only with foroepe 01' tonp. Rflugh or HI-ra"ive nller hlUldllll8 wm rcsult in erroneous weight ,1"'Nminalion.

lUll Follow Ihe mnnllfacturer'l choka nnd Ih:(JI!I~ Instruc.lion for hot ltat1lftl. Simultftneously siat! lhe enpe Ind I"·t:i .. exhaust lind dilutlon.tt 11""11,,,. I <>r diesel enginea. lum 08 the tn. dl'Ot:Arbon anlllyeer aY'I_lnttWnlGt. n'rk Ihl! recorder charI. and tum on !he ,.:.r\iCI1t.lte sample pump(I).

(2011\~ 800n n.1t Is delermlned that I!,,· enl{lnp. 15 ~Inrted. slart a "free hIIe~ ti"ICr.

I Zl) Allow Ihe en!!ine 10 Idle f~ "i;h no-lo"d for 24 :t 1 second •. 'I1Ie 1" (lvi"lons lind InterpretatlOOl ofstep i,' i(S) of thl. ""ctlon apply.

IZ2) Df!lJln the tranaient e""ne qde ,,, .. h thRI the fi.'!!t non-Idle record of the "de occurs al 2-'i ± 1 fIf'OOnde. n. free ,,11,· I~ inc1uoo.! In the %5 t 1 1IeCOftd ••

{Z31 On Ihe IIISI record of the C7dll LI',;He .Rmplin~. For diesel englnf'l. ,;;m"haneoualy lum off ga8 ftow '''I'OR"rI,,!! devlCt!{81l1nd the dietOel ":.<lro<:lIrbon Inle!l"'tOt. mali the I,,'urocaroon recorder chllTl.nd tum off Ii;" particulate .8m~e \'IUftI1J!aJ.

(2411\s soon RS poulble tranlfer \fie ",,,,I start eycl,," ~XhAlI~1 nnd diluUOD :Ii, Ilag .~mpl~. In Ihe snalytkallyltem ,,,,,] prur..,sa Ih 'Rmpl~. according to ~ 1161340-l1li ohll';nin8 a .",bllized rI'"diO!! of Ihe exhaust "amplll on all ,i ,,,I)':.crs within 20 minute, of Ihe end ", .11i' ""If pIp. collection phillie of the '.

.. I.),. tli,·.'" enllines. carefully .' 'i,,,I' PRen "Rfticulnte sRmple filteT f. ,''' ,I:< Itol,ler and place each in III ck!an I" I, i ;JI!lh IInll (,ovrr a~ sonn as possible. \\',III'n pnr hom .flet the end uf the hoi , "<rt rhal~ of 10, lesl. transfer th" four raffie,d.ltl' fillrr~ to the ",~ighlng I h;ll1Ihpr fDr poMtP~t condillonlng.

1!1I1 Thp CVS lind thl' engine may be Ii .. , ... .1 ofl'. If tlp,;rrri.

(b) ,[,hll procedure In 1'lIrnR""Ph (II) of Ihi. lectlon is designed fur one IlIrnple b~1I for the cold Itarl portion and one for Ihe bol Itart portion. 1\ il Jlermlllible tn lI~e 4 sample bl, per tesl portion. The hailS ahll\laample fOl' Ihe portion of the cyde a. Indicated below:

SompIo -...... - --.-.-.... - -------• 2 3 <4 ___ ,._ ..... w •••• _.·._._ .... •• ___ ••

2T' S,. -"" "' !1117

." ... 41. A new § 118.1338-86 is added .nd

reads as followa:

§ ".1331-41 E ........ "" ....... " -,. (a) Meallurem8llt aCllIlrncy fOl'

analysil .YllblIna utetl fOl' hilI! mealUl'elM!lllS.

(11 Good eftII.-.int! ""'ctlce _Id diclate Ihat .nalyzer readings below 15 pen:en' of r.n lcale mlrt deflection should plllII'8l1y not be UrIM.

(2) Some hlJh teIOlution read-out IYltemtl .uch II ClJlllpulera. datil laggeTl. m., caD provide sufficienl aL'CuraCJ .nd relOlution below 15 percent of faD teale. Such s,.teml mlly be used provided Ihlt additional cAlibratiOll bo",ea are added 10 Inaure thaI the cillbration CUrvel bf.low 15 percent of faD scale. In the region of Ihe sample me.ntelllt!tllS. conforms 10 the accuraCJ tplCillcatilll1l In I 86.131tH18 Ihro. ,lI8.tM-a.

(b) Mel'WeDil'll' aa:uracy for anolYlil .,atni. ued for continuous meuurelDent arateml.

(11 Analpert ned for continuou IInelJsls ronl be opented Illch !h.t the Inlesrated concentration VRlup. over the test cycle rell8 between 15 Rnd 100 p~rcenl of full scale chart deneellon. Exceptionl to th"e limit. are:

(il The analyar'a responee m.), be lell Ihan 15 JIl!l'C4!Iit or more than 100 percenl of full scale If aulomatlc TIInp chenge circuitry Is used and Ihe limit. for range chan," are between 15 and 100 percent of ull-Ical, chari deDectIon:

Iii) The analyzer's responle mlY be lp.ss than 15 percent or full 8cllle if:

[AI Allernative (a)(2) of this section il used 10 Inlure Ihallhe accuracy of the calibration c\lrvl! Is maintAined b.low 15

_. percent: or (SI nle full-scale valul' is If':; ppmC or

leaR: nr (e) The emissions fa'om Lbe !!nalne are

erratic and the Integrated chart de nee lion value ie!P'ealer than 15 percl'll! of full ar.ale; or

(D) The contribullon of all dnte read helow the 11 percentlevellw Ie" thnn 10 perCllftl, '" III." 0{ thl' final I"' ~1l1t8

(til) Durillllllll8ine slart·up tht He ana'yzer II nllowed 10 ~.pike~ orr-ocld .. fo~ a maximum of 5 l!!COnd •.

42. A nf'W 1l1li.1339-116 I. adde!! lind re"d. RR follow.:

I ... , ........... ~ .... .. •• .." •• 1 ... ..

(0) At I_I t 1Iour. but not man thin 80 houTl before ....... \, p'ace each ruter In In open. bot PlVlected. petri ditb and place in the wetahllI8 chamber which meelS the b_idll)' .nd temperature apeclflcatiou of 118. UtZ-aJ.

(bl At the and 0{ the 1 10 lID hour Bla billEilItoa p8riocL weigh the BIter on a holOl_ "'Ylne' precI.loa of_ micl'1i\P'IIlIL R~ thIa wei(lh\. '1111, readi"llil tt.. I .... wetshl.

(cl 'I1ie filler .... 0 then b. Itored In II covered petri dIu whid! Iha II remain In Ihe weighing ch.mber until needed for lealin8·

(d) If lhe IUter II nol uRd within one hour of ilS ... IDOVI' from the weighing chamber. II .hall be re-wtighed.

(el After the teat. .nd "fler the 18m"le filter II ... tvDed to the weishing room, condillon It fur at lellill hour bUI not' more than 80 hOUTl. Then we iSh e . second U_. Th .. lattpr reading is the IIroll weith! of the filler. Record thl' weillht.

10 The nee wellht IM",118 the gTOU weillht mlnu the t.re weight.

Note.-SIIOIIld tbe .alllple on die niter conlacl the pftt chh or IIny olh." IU1face. the lell il \'UhI anel ...... , be ",-nm. -

43. A new 186.1341H111 i8 added and read ... follows:

t"·1~ ~ ....... ..,..,. (a) 'I1Ie ana'yzer response lIlay bl'

read by automatic dalll colleclion (AUe) equipment .uc:b II compulet'll, data IQ8ReTl, elc. If ADC equipment ilt ulled the followllll il required.

(1 I For b.S Inll,.l. lhe anah"Zl'r reRponse musl be stable alsresler thon 99 percent of flna' readina- A Ilnglll . VlIlue repretentlnalhl' average chorl denectlon over a.10 .econd slablized pI'rlod may be 81ored.

(2) For c04llnuoul anll)'ll, ",'e1tISo !he ADC .}'Item mu,l siore .lleasl 5 chart deftllC1ion readingl per lecond.

(3) The chan denec1\Qnlln (a) (1) and (2) of Ihis aectlOll may be Btored on Inns tenn compult!r storage dpvke,: such 8S

computer lepee. storlt8e disca. punc" card •. or Ihl!}' may be printed In 8 IiRlin!! for slorRge. In either C8111 a chari r!!corder i. "lit required Ind recordl from a chan reconIer. If lhey ."ill. need nol be stored.

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1958 Federal Register I Vul. 46. No.4 I Wedlwsday. January 7. 1981 I Proposed Rules

HIli Ih" lI •• lu hom AVe uljuipmenl ia "",<I ,,~ p",mullent recunl •. the ADC "'1U1l'm"nt lind the IIlllllyzcr valuellil 1II11·quetcd by the ADC 8quipmenllre tiubicctto Ihe clllihralion specification. in n 1I0.t:lltHlO thmugh U6.13:!6-a8 •• 1 if Ih" ."DC c'luipmllnt were part of the uIIHI)'zt~r.

Ih) Dill" ",coni, from IIny one or I ,,,mh,n .. li,,n of unlilyzer. may be Ilored lIS chart ,..,,;order recordl.

Ie) Soft .... ore zero olldapml. (11 The lise of "s"ftware" zero lind span i. I',·rmilletl. The proc" .. of software zero lII,d .pUIl refers to the technique of 'nllllllly udlU.hllllthe IInalyzer zero lind "1""1 r"~I)Onses to the c"hbrallon curve ,.,II",s. hut for subsequenl lero end hi"'" ch"ck. \he anulyzor responle la hilllply recurded without IIdjualill8 tho ... ",Iyzer gain. The obll<lrved analyzer rl"p"nse ftlcorded frum the subsequent ..!,cck is malhemllticully corracled bock I" the clIlHnation eur~e villuOI for zero .1I1l1 span. The lame milthematical ,o''''cliun i8 then IIpplied to Ihe .II, •• IYZIlr'S respunse to II 11.Impie of '" h.'"8t g." i .. urder to oompule the true ~.lflJple t.ulIl:Cnlrdlion.

(21 The maximum 8mounl of aortware z,·,o lind .pan muthematic,,1 correction is ' 10 I""""nl uf full leal" chart tI..rt.-cl iun. .

(3) Soflwarc zero lind _plln mllY be ,,",,<1 10 bwilch between rllll8e8 wllhout . lIljll.liIiH Ih" g •• in uf the analyzer.

(4) Th" 9uflwllrIl zero and Ipan 1,· •. hlli'lut! IllUY nut be ueed to malk III •• ,)y •. cr dlift. The observed churt tI"n.~clion before and urter a gillen lime IWI iud ur event shall be uled for wmpulilllllhe drift. Softwure zero and -I'"n nUty be used lifter Ihe drift hili 1"'''11 complltedto mathematically adjuII lilly .pun drift 80 Ihul Ihe "ufter" epun dll".~ Olily be transformed Inlo Ihe "bdulI'" s" .. n chcck for the next ~"!llOelll.

ItI) Fllr h.IS .ample IIn"lysil perform Ihe r"II"willll sequence;

11) W"rlll'~p and stabilize Ihe '"I.oIyz'·IS.

(2) CI".ln ilntl/or replace filter I·""",,nl •. condilioniny columns (if used). t'l" . us Iwcpss.lry.

):I) TI", unl"r "f .t,·ps (l)und (21 may I ... inll·rchllng"d.

H) Ob'aln II .talole %eru reading. (5) ZI'''" "nd span Ihe ullulyzen ""ilh

"'ro "lid '"U!llld6IlB. The Hpan gasos oh.lil h.l\·I· CIlIILentrutiun. bel ween 75 .",,11011 1,,',wllt .. f full BLuie churl d,·n"dilJll Thl! nuw rulel und 8)'011101 I'''· •.• Ul'l·,. "urinN spunning 'hall Le ''II'",.\i"Io.II·ly Ih,· sUnle III Ihuse ,'IlUl\ClIPft,d durin" 8~mpling.

(til Rp·dwck zero r"sponle. I'llpellt pilrll!o:r"phb (<1)(41 lind (d1l51 uf thi'

aeellon or U80 &uflware lero lind span if neees'''IY·

(7} If a chart recurder i6 u*cd. identify the musl recent zero ami span response al the pre·anlll)·si. valu",. .

(81 If ADC e\juipmentls used. electronically rllLord Ihe nlosl recenl zeru and span response il8 the pre· anul).i. values.

(1/) Measure Be (c"Lcpl diesels I. CO. CO •. and NO. cuncenlraliulll in the .ample bag(.' wilh approlliOlillely the ,lime now rates lind pfl'&~urc. used in pllr"graph (dllS) of Ihis seelion. Conslituentl measured c*ntinuoualy do nol require beg IInuly.;s.

(101 Recbeckillg of Ihe zero ond 8pan poinl afler Ihe unalysi8 of the bag 18 permitted. The number of bags that may be an.dyud afler pre·anuIYli. valuel for zero end Ipap h,,\'e Leen delermined il nut Ipeclnlld. The hmilinll criteria on the tillle span or the number of event. thilt ml'y occur between Ihe pre·analyala and 1>08t·llllllly.l. IIIro sp .. n checlr.. are Ihe followiJla:

(il A p ... ·BRilly.18 lero und apan value for each runlle of each cun,lituentlo be analyzed mllll be d"lemlined and identified or recorded prior to analyzill8 thll bag. Tbe baa may Le lampled in ordar to idenlify Ibe apeclfic range required prior to Ihe delermination qf the pre·ilnalyala valuel.

(iiI A poII.anlll),all zero Bnd apan WIeck fur each rllll81: used muat be perfurmed and Ihe vllIllel recorded. The lime inlerval or Ibe number of evenls Ihal mllY occur bel ween the pre and poll check. is nol .pecified. Howevcr. the difference between pre·llnlll),sia zero lind apan vlllues (recorded in step (71 and (8)) veraus those recorded for the po8t.allaly.i. check mdY not excelld the zllro drlfllimit or the apun drift limit uf 2 percent of full Icule ch.ut deDection for any ,anile u.cd.

(iiil The lime epun Lel",el'n Ihe pre and poSI checks nUIY be no IUlIger thun the time perlud thllt W"I used to eVilluate the analyzer drift performanLu.

{11} Anulyzc Ihe renulinlng slimple and backaroupd bags 01 uulUlIed in ,tepi (4) through (l0).

(el For continuoul s .. mple anal)8i8 purform the following sel/uencel:

(I) Wllrm·up and I'~bi Ize Ihe anlilyze,..

(21 Clean und/ot rel,lace filter elemenls. cundltioning column. (If u~ed) elc .. 08 nceels"ry.

(31 The order of sl<,P" (II anlllZI mily be inlerchanlled.

(4) IAluk che<:k plII'liml» ollhe • .,mpling Iyalem Ih"l "peru Ie under II Vacuum "hell .amllilnll.

(5) Allow hcut"d ... mple IIncl. filtera. pumps. ele .. 10 slllbilize 01 opera tins tcmperuturu.

(Ill The order of IIepl141 and (51 mil)' be interchall88d.

(7) Oblain a shlble zefO reading. (8) Zero and span each range 10 be

used on ellch analyzer used prior tu the beginnill8 of Ibe cold cycle. The span guses shall have a concenlration belween 75 and 100 percent of full scale chilrt deDection. Tha Dow rates and IY8111m p ..... U181 thall bll approximalely the lamll aa Ihol. encountered durina samplill8.

(91 Re-check zero response. repellt slops (71 and (8) or uae .oftwllre zero and Ipan If necessary.

(10) If II chart recorder II used. identify the most recent zero lind span response a8 the pre·analysi8 values.

(11) If ADC equipment II used. eleclronically. record Ihe mo.1 recenl zero IlIId apan naponle al the pre­analYli. values.

(12) Mes,ure Ihe eml8siona (HC required for dio8ela. NO .. CO. CO. optional) conlinuoualy during the cold Ilurt cycle. Indica Ie the shul of the test. Ihe ranael'} 1II0d. Ind Ibe end of the tesl on Ihe recordill8 medium (chart paper or Aile equipmenl). U.e approxlmalcly the lame now rales and 'Yltem pressurea used in .tep (8).

1131 Collect backsround HC. CO. Co.. and NO. in a &ample bas.

(141 Perform a pOII·anlilyais zero and spiln check for each range al Ihe condition. Ipecified In step 181 .

(151 Neither the zero drift nor the spun drifl between Ihe pre·anillyail and poat· analysis check, on any ranae uaed may ""ceed 3 percenl for HC or 2 percent for NO •• CO. and Co. of full scale chart deDection. or the teat il void.

(161 Determine HC backllround levels for the cold eturl cycle by inlroducinllil sample from the background bag inlo thB overnow HC Ipan 'Yltem.

111) Delermine bllckJi'ound levels of NO •. CO. or CO. (if nece8&oI'Y) by the t""hnlque outlined In pllragraph (el of thia Illcliop. The wnUnUOU8 IInalyzllfB mlly be used for apalYlil under parlillrapb (e).

NoI •. -I'or a qua lily control check on tl",.d ItC. campa .. an analyeit of a t."ckground bea to a conlinuout IInllly.i. of budlground air a .. Dlpled thro"llh the IoIal hl dtucarbon probe. For bo&t r ... ull •. the U'lr~",nce .hould be I" .. than 1 percent on the avcraaeltlme Intcaral~od) dilute hl.Jrocarbon emi'lion level during the Icol.

(161 Ropelitstepi (71 through (17) for the hot cyc\a. The po.I·llnalysis zllro Hnd Ipun check for the cold slart (ur prclliou, hot Ilartl cycle may be used for Ihe pre·IIIlIIIYlil zeru lind span for the rulluwlnll boLllurl cycle.

(19) If the lIC drift II greuter thun 3 percenl of full·scale ehllrl deflection. hydrocorbon hang· up Is IUlpeeted.

- 92 -

, ...... R_I'_" , Vol. 46, No.4 I Wednr.wRY. January 7. 1981 I PI'opoef!d RuIn 1_

fI')IIC hllng-up. If Ihe He hang-up II SURPIlCII'CI. Ihe following .equencll mA)' I'e p,·rformed.

(1) fill • elenn ,.mpl, b .. with I'ro RII~.

12} Z~ro Rnd "pRn Ihe lIPID willi tbe o""rnow .ysl",n.

(3) "nalyze Ihe .Rmple baA through Ihe overflow sAmple IYllem. 1~I"nHlyze tha .. mple ba. OD

unother FlU or BOO _1I"Ilh. RPI'(:mCRtiOn or Ihls Subpart or 40 CPR. Suhparl 0 Ihal doe8 not hllve a hR"8-up prohlem.

(5) If Ihe difference between the r" ... .llnIl8 oblnlned Is 3 percent or more of Ihe I/FID full 8Gol!!. disconnect probe lind c1enn Rllmll. (Sonklng with sulfuric .. dd "R~ proven erret:live.) Clean sample hlP ~I.o. (llenlinlllo 450' ... ond now l1ilco!<f'n R88 cnnlinuously for 12 bOlllll !·a. Ilfoven usefuL)

Ill) ReBasembe Ihe sample 'Yltem. 1"'01 I,., ~p"cmed lemperal-. and rl'peol Ihe procedure In (t)lhruogh (til nhove.

44. " new IIl6.tJ.4t-116ls added and ,,,,,,Is 119 follows:

§ ee. 134 ,.... THI ~ .1IIIdIIIIon crn.rtL In) To I .. duce errore belween Ihe

feedbnck and reference (cycle trace) VAIIlCS Ihe engine speed lind torque rcedhRI:k IIgnal8 may be shifted. ma)(imum of ±'5 second. wllh rapaclle II", reference speed ond lorque Irace •. If t'lt~ feedb.,;k 8i8nollare ahlned. bolh • 1'1'1'(1 and torque mUll be .hfl'ted the ".1I11\! amount In Ihe 88me dlrecllon.

Ih) Calculnte Ihe brake horsepower for each pair of ef18lne speed and lorque ,,,IIIPS l'ecorded. II.lso colcll10le Ihe reference brake horsepower for each I'air of cnRlne speed Dnd lorque n,ference \·aluI'8. Calculatlonl ahall be In nve 91l1nmc(lnl diana.

Ic) I.incar rellrestrionl of feedback ":due on reference value shall hI! rt'ffnrmed for speed. torq~ lind brake hnrRp.pnwer. The mel hod of le.,I-Iqua ... • hlll\ be " •. ,d. Thl! equation 8hall have II", forlO:

) ··III~ .. b \\,hmo:

). , The f.·,·dlulf:k ("cluel) value of .p .... d (In RI'~'J Tor,!". (in fI·Jb •. ). or brAkr hCJI~("p(J\\"·r.

III ~Iop(' of till' rt'Jlf(~RRion line. nw r(·rl'f(~nrr. \'ulur (~Jlf'f'd .• orqur. or

1>,;, .10;1' , t1f!4f'rO,....'rl.

tl Thr y IIlIN\ ,'plllf Ihl':' rCRreuion line.

(tI) '111' siandard error of estimute (sr) oj y un ~ lind Ihe coefficlenl of (l""'rllli"~lI"n (r'l.h,,11 be calculated ror ";1. h n'~'PRsinn line.

(p) For a .. Ud·IPlI the criteria In F1llure NII8-14 mURI hI'! mrl for hnlh C)'del (cold Ilnrlllnd hnl 911lrl) hllJivldUIIlly. 001 ... lIon8 rrum Ihe rellre .. lon analyel. art! permitted when allowed In Ft ..... NIlII·14. -"-OCIDI-..

- 93 -

1980 Federal R:;: .... I Vol. 46. No.4 I Wednel>dllY. January 7, 1981 I Proposed Rule:




SLOPIOFTHI U70- o,a.I.03 HOT 0."1.03 1HGT1 RlGMlSION UNI. M '.G30 0.77·1.03 COLI) Q.l7-1.Q3 (COLOI


Y INTIACIJ'f 0' 1MI RECiMtIION U ..... ~ 1.0 0' 8fWCI * 10 RPM * 11 II't LIS. HORSIJIOWIR



"1'1$1' 24 seCONDS (: II 01' 'RIIIOU ~ HOT AND COLI) CYCU£S





A. IS EOUAI. TO ZERO I: 10 FT. Las.) OR;


FtGURE NS&-14·







10 Th' fnllWr.'1d brake honIep_ei' hour lor "ell eyele (cold and hoI Itm/ • hall be between -111 percenl and +5 percent or Ihe fnle .... 'ed brake horHpower-hout far the rarennllll cyclo or Ihe lelt II yoid. A11lorque and lpeed dala polnls mUll be uled 10 calculllle Ihe Interwre1ed brake horeepow_hOtlr. For the pu..,.,." of1hl. oalcuilltion. negat\vl! lorque vnluel (I.e~ molortn, horsepower/.hall be IBI equal to aero and included.

lA/if a dynamometer tell run 'I de1t!rrnfned 10 be 11811111cal." or experimentally void. colftCtlve action Rhotl he takr.n. The enatne ,hllll then be nllowed 10 cool (naturally or rorced) Rnd the dynamomeler lell rerun per lSOD37-M.

45. II new 186. 1342-881. lidded and reRd. DR follows:

§ 86.1342.... C.lculellon.; •• hellet eml .. ~

[al The Fin .. 1 reporled Ir.nalenl PmiRsinn le8t resulll Ihall be computed by u." uf the 1"lIowi ... formula:

(l) Hydroc.rbon _ •• a:

" . ... Whr.re:

- 94 -

A_ = Wr.iRhlr.d mo •• ~mi .. I"" I~\·.I (IIC. co. CO~ NO. or porlkul"le ,di.lel !>ntyllin g,an,. pcr !>rnk" h",.."o",er hour.

, ... ~ M ••• emls.inn Ir.vel in jII1Irns. mea.ured during Ihr. enId oillil Ie ...

RM'" Mall emissions 11""f'1 in Rrnml. mf'RIUred durin" th .. hot start 11-", ..

m 'I'-IIR.. ~ Tolal bro~r. hor,,·pow,·r·hour (hrake horsrl'owrr intrRrall'" wilh rrspt!cl to limel rur thl! coM "ttlrt ......

DI ",-I JR." ~- Tolal hrllkr honf'powrr.hnur (hreke hO"'''IJOwl!r inlf'~ralf'd ","h respect In limr) (ur Ihr hoi ~tnrl "'st

(11 The mo.~ 01 ~a<:h poliuta"t 1M Ih~ cold slart lest lind Ihe hOi Atarl lest ror halt mrusurcnwnts nnd diP!wl hf!al exchanger samp1t~ syslem n1Pa!i'un~mf>nh is d.,lermineli lrom thp 1"II"winM cqunlions:

NOx • V. X Oenlityuo X ~H X (NO. 11,000,000) III .. 'S IIII.X " 2 conc

(iii) C .. rbon monoxidll lIIa.l:

co • V. X Denlityco X (CO 11,000,000) _ •• 8 IIIU( conc

(iv) Carbon dioxide ... SI:

(v) Diesel p .. rticul .. te IIII1SS:

- 95 -

1_ Federal Regilter I Vol. 46. No.4 I Wedncsll"y. January 7. 1981 I Propoled Rules

(2) The mass or each pOH~(dnt (or the culd .tart tetil Bnd Ihe hoi 'IHI leal for now compensaled sample .p!~:.,. I,

(1) ac;. ...

determined rrom Ihe rollowing equul\ona:

& V.ix ~ Den.~ty ac

. ( U) lICx".-.... x (V.ix)i ~ (Denlicy NO ) x .1T)

( iii) D

• i.' (COa)i -, :r-10


• x (V.ix)i x (Dan.ity CO) x 6T)

COd 1 - i06 (1- Dr ) x V.ix & Den.icy CO

(iv) C0:1. ...

(3) MeHning or tiymbole:

Ii) "c.._=U)ld"'J(;~rIJOn emiulOnJ. in sram. per le81 phuMa.

Denoity,., ~ Denlily of hydrocarbon. i. 16.3:1 gill' (.5768 ka/m'l. aOlumins an tfU~r41H" carbon to hydroareu raUu of II.U~. ul 6II'f (zo'C) end 780 mm 118 (101.3 kl'.'J pro .. ur •.

IIC~M: lIyuM,urbon concontralion of the dilu' ... h.u.,"ample corrected tor back&roulld. in ppm "",bon equlvMlent. i .•.• equlvalenl propane X 3,

Ilc:-~ltC.-IIc..ll-(l/DFlI Where:

lie, = lIydrllcnrhon conc.nlralion uf the dilute exhaust buglample or, fur die •• 1 hcut eJlChBnger IYlleml, average h~drocurbon concenlration of the dilute Ixhau8t .ample",. calculuted from Ihu Intearaled He Irlice •• In ppm carbon equivalent. Po, now compen.aled

,umplo ayalt:m. (Ile,l, I. th. ilUttantuneOUI concentralioll.

IiC .... A "~dro<:o,hon ""nccnltation of Ihe d,lulion air •• m"".ur.,j, In ppm curbun etlui\'tllenl. , •

(il) NO ..... <,:. O'llt.Hll!8 ur l1il!'UK"n cmillhms. in /lr.mo PI" h·.1 ph.,sc_

Denaitytrr.:o.;.· Ot!nltty uf u,iJul uf nltroHtm 1.54.16 a/f1'II.OI3 ~lI/m'), ••• uminH Ihey Dr .. in Ihe f",on of III"osun dloxld .. , al 118'.' (20'C) und 7llO him 11II110U kru) prl!88Ure.

NO\U.M ..c 0,,"..1.,. of nitro8on concenl',IUon uf Ih. dilu", ... h"ult lon'pl. corn",t.d fur bu~karound, in PI'"'.

NO., .... ~ NOx, - NO~.II - lI/Ut'll Where:

NO,,-:..: O"id~. of nilro.,'~n conGCDI'Hti"n ur Ihe dilute exhuult bu .... mpla •• mea.u .... d, in pplll. Fur nuw COII'I,vn.oted .umple .~.h·m. INOx,). i. Ihe inlldnl.naoul concenlration.

NOx" .0x"10II 01 nit ....... concBhtru\iu" of Ihe dilule air .a moaaured. In ppm.

llii) eO_=Carbon monollide emi •• ions. in "am. pBr leal pha.e, ,

Denslly",,= Density of carbon monoxidv is 32.97 a/f1'll.llM kg/m'l. al68'F (:!O'CJ and 7110 mm Hal (lOt.S kPa) pre.sure.

CO_=Csrbon monoxide concentralion of lhe dllule exhau.1 lample colTecled for becUroUDd. waler vapor. and CO, elQilclion. 10 ppm.



eO.~Carbon monoxide wneentralion of the dilule exhausl bas .. mple volume CDmlcled fo, waler vapor lind carbon dioxide .xlrscllon. In ppm. For 'now compen.aled Hmple .y.lema (CO,), i. Ihe IDalanlaneou. wncenlralion. The calculation alaumes the carbon to hydrosen ralio of the fuel I. 1:1.05.

CO.-It -o.ot925CO .. -0.000323RICO ...


CO,. -Carbon monoxide coneenlr.tion of the dllule exhausl .ample al measured. Iii ppm,

eo..-Carbon dioxide concentralion of Ihe dllule axhaua' bea.ample. In percent. for now compelllllled sample eYltcms ICo..l, II the inalanlaneoua concentration.

R ~R81allve huulidil)l oC the dilution olr, in penlenl (He I 88.1342 ..... )(5)).

CO.-Carbon moxide concenlratiun uf the dilution air correcled for waler vapllr .. ""84:1100. In ppm.

CO.-II-O,OOO323R)CO ..


CO •• Co Carbon monoxide concentr.tion of Ihe dilution air lampl ••• measured, in ppm.

Nol •. -U a CO instrument which meeis the criteria lpeclfled In 168.1311 .... is us.d and

. Ihe wndlllonina column hal been deleted, CO_ can be .ubaliluled directly for CO. and CO .. can be lub.liluled direclly for CO •. Ii\') Co.._ -Carbun dioxide eml.slons. in

srams per leal phase, Deualtyc:ooaDenllly of carbon dioxide is

SUSs/fl'(1.1M3 kg/m'l. at68'F (W'C) an,j 760 mm HS(IOt.3 kPa) pre •• ure.

eo_ & Carbon dlollide concentration of Ihe dihllq exbaUII .. mpl. correcled for baclosround. In percelli.

CO ... M=CO .. -CO .. (l-(l/m'!I


co .. ~ Curbun dluxid. cune.ntr.tiun of Iho dllutiun air as me".u .... d, in percent.

Iv) 1' __ Mu .. 01 particul¥le dotel'mi"ed In gram. per lelt ph .... ,

", ~ Malt of purtlculal. per lelt on Ihl! ollhaual filter (ot Oller. if Ihe b.,:k·up fill.r II required. See I l1li. 13UHIIl(t;J for delerminatiulli. gram •.

V .. ~ Tolal "ulume of ."mpl .. remm'"d from lhe primary dilution lunnel, cubic fect HI standard comllllQnl,

(H) For. Iingle-lhiulio/l IYIIIUP1:

- 96 -

,..... ........ , Vol. te, No, 4 I Wednellday, 'anua.,. 7, 1981 I Propo.ed Rules 1183

Where: V _ ~ Rclual volume of dUule .. mple

removed from Ihe primel')'-dllullon lunnrl. eublc reel.

1'. ~ barometric pre •• IIl'II. mm"" I' .. = pre •• ure eleyalton abo .. amblenl

me •• u ... d at the 1n1,llo die dilute o"hauII 'Impl, ••• met.r 01' now In.trumant.lion. mm .... For mOil, .. melerl or now In.IruaI ... 1I with unmlricted dlech ..... POol. n ....... bl. and can be _lIDIed - O.

T .. - .ve ..... lemperature of Ihe dllule exhau.t I.mple at the Inlello Ih, ."' meier or now 1n.lrumenlaUon. "R.

Note.-V .. rna, ... qul ... co,",clion Rccordlng 10 t 116.132O-811{1j.

(b) For 8 double·dilutlon eyslem:

V .. ~V" whor*: v,,~v •• y(p. +1' .. 1 x 528"R(T .. x 760

.,mllG V ~ ~ acluol volume of double diluled

•• mple which passed Ihrouah Ihe parhculate filler. cablc feel.

1'. ~ barometric prenure. mmUs. 1' .. = p""soure .Ievation abovl Imble,,1

me .. unod al the Inlet to thl .ample ,a. met.r located .t th, exll 'Id. of lhe 8rcondury dilution tunnel, mmlta. For m",,1 melers with unrestrlcled dllchorge 1'" I. nesli~lble and can be a •• umed-O.

T".· AvcraMe temper"ure of the dllut. exhausl •• mpl. allhe Inlet to lhe ... 11 side 8a. meter or now l ... tnIlnenlalion. 'R.

V,,~ V .. x (P. + Pool x 5ZO' R/T .. x 7110 mmllG

V .. e aclual volume 01 aecondal')' dilution air. cubie leel.

p. ~ bAromelrlc pre .. u .... mmlta· " .. = prea.u", el.vaUon .bo". ambient

..... ureol at the Inlel to the oemple •• 1 m .. ler or now InllNmentallon _ted al Ih. Inlel .ide of Ihe .econdal')' dilution lu"nel. mmH,. For moat , •• metare with un ..... llict.d discharge p .. II n .... l.ble ",,,I eftn btl .,"umed-o.

'I',." !\vetHse temperature of the dilute uhnU91 .ample ot Ihe Inlel to thelnlel ,Ide 808 meier or now InttrvmenlaUon. 'R.

NOlo.-Bolh V" end V" rna)' require ,"orreel inn ACl:ordi ... 10 1118.1,...1). 'I1Iue correcl.ons mU81 he appllpd herON V .. II dl fennlnrd.

Note.-The baclqp-ound p8"lculele level In.ldo Ih. dilution air filter bo .. at EPA I. >t'ry low. This parllculale level will be oHoumcd =0. Rnd backsround parliculale a" nlplea "ill nol be lakfOn wllh each e .. haust 611mple II i. ,poommpnded Ihat backaround pmticuhtte (·hr.cka be made periodically to verify Ihe low 1 ... 1. Any menulaclu_ may ",,,ke Ih" ".me .,.umplion wllhoul prior EPA upprm, ill.

(viI DF-t3 .• "CO .... (lie. +CO.I x 10" K. + Humldlly correction loci or.

For 88sollne engines:

K"et/(1-0.0047(H ·-7511 (orlnr 81 unll.-lI\1-0.032911l-10.1\ )Jl

For diesel engines: Kant.

Where: H - Aboolul. humIdity In aralna I,ramll of

wal .. r per pound 11<11oa,801) of dl')' .Ir. H -l!.3 .• 78IR.x P.I/lp. - (P.x R./IOOII 101

61 unU., H-((8.ZtlIR.xr.Jf!PI -(P.xR. (tOO))

R.~ Relallva humidity of the amblenl air. In percenl.

P._Salurated VRpor pre •• ure. In mm I" (ltPaI at Ihe amblenl dry bulb temperatum.

P.aBarumelric pre .. ure. In mm Ill! (kPal. Ill-Time Interval lin .~condsl belweon

08mpleo In now compen.Bled "Ylleml (O.Z aecond. m8xlmum).

V _ = Tolal dilute .khau.1 volume In cubic leel per le.1 phale correcled 10 .Iand.rd rondilion. (SZO'R (Z93'Kland 7110 mm Ita (101.3 kPal.

(V_J.=ln.laolaneou. dllule "xheuII volumetric now rille (ror compens81ed now Iy.temll. In cubic r.", per ."cond.

For PDP~Vs. V •• , la:

9. ., .111 0

W(', - ',)(5%S'R) 11-"':"'-";;;"---

060 _ flJHT ) p

fol' 51 uaiti.

WIle ... V._Volume of aa. pumped by Ih. "",llIv.

dleplacemenl pump. In cumc feel (cubic me ..... ) per revolullon. Thll yolume I. dependent on lhe p .... ore differential a~ th. poaltlv8 dl.placement pump.

N - Number of ravolutlonl 0' the poaltlve diaplacement pump duli ... Ihe te.t phaM while 08mple. are bel ... collected.

PI-Baromelric preeeUJ'8. In mm HalkPa). P. - Prenure de"",lIlonl below

almoopheric mealured al Ihe Inlello Ih. "",lIlve dl.placemenl pump. In mm HI! IkPal (dun ... ao Idle mode).

T.-AvenS_ temperalure of dilule •• hauII enlerlna pD.ltln dl.plar;~menl pump durl ... te.l, 'R ('KI·

[b) Sample calculation or mall values or extrausl emis,ions:

(t) Assume Ihl! rollowing lest results ror R lI"solioe engiol!: .

CIId":.:'" _ .... "=-_ V_" eo24 ft'.,... 8113"' II ............... 302'> .................... 30 2 .... ..... ............... 30.2.... ........ . . ........ 30 2 .... p._ ....... " ... _". 7'25 ....... ,._ .... ' ...... 735",", HI P"., ......• _,,,_ 21'.8" "" HI .............. .u I,. ""'" Hi HC. ........ -..... 'ilM _ C _ •• ,,.... c ..... HOI. . " .. , .• ppm,.. 101M PP'" 00_ 111 b ppm tt .. 2ft PP"I 00.. .... ,. .',........ 3&1' ...:.._ . ): 10"", C ..,tv 8 10 ppm C .... -.,._ .... _ eo __ ............ 0'0,.... co..-_ ... e_ .. __ ... _. '''_ QO., ... a 0... _ 0 ... _ .......... _. om .... . ... ,..


Cold SIQI'f re.' H -1l43.t7lJ(30.2J(UAnlIIi

\7Ji-Izz.tJ78J(:IO.zl/l00\ ~., lral ... or w.ter per pound 01 dry Ilr.

K.~ 1/11-0.G047141-7511 :O.8fl2 CO.-ll-0.011125(.1711

- 0.000323(30.2))171.22 ~IIl!lO ppm CO.-II-ObI ... IJ(' .... ,JO.8II"'., ppm UF-1U/l.171+fl3Z.t +1 .... 10 " 14.:IIn tlc.-~tU.1-3.BlI-(1JIIUI511 = Ila.1I ppm Hc.-- 89Z4(111.33J(tZ8.III1.OOO.tIlO) ~ 14.53

.... m. NO,,-o 1.88-0.GII -fl/I4.I6SJI ~ 1.88,pm Na-~8tI24(54.16)(.882Jt1 .• J

1.00Il.00III-1.114 ... _ CO_ -1111.0 - "'11- (I (14.2II51J - 1011.0

Pplll CO_ - 8924(32.971( 168.0(t .000.'lOO1 ~ '11.35

IIr8m. Co--.17'-~1-/1I4·_lJ-·t7'" CO--.... SI.85)(.17./1001=1I3!1 M'8ma

/fal Slort Tnl

A •• ume IlmU.r cllculaUonl reoull In lhe rollowl"" HC_zB.7Z...-NOx_-3.lII ...... CO_-Z5-'O 1I'8I1l1

CO_=12ZI ......... (ZI WeI8IIted _I _111100 ...... 11.:

RC • 1"(16.,.,1. 6/7(8.72r - t/f{o.l5il. 6/'<0.11"

~ • 1/7(%.",. 617(J .• " ~ IInd.z"). 6/7tO.147)

• 10.0 ,. ... /aRP-RI

co • 117(".J',. 617121.70' ~ 17710.1,9). &/7(0.J47'

co • 11716"'. 'V I U2.' z.. [/1(0.259J.' 1(0.l4" . ,.., ~-.I lIIt-u

- 97 -

1964 .·oderal Register I Vol. -ill. No.4 I W..,dnt!,ti.,y. 1,IIII1"ry 7. 19111 I Proposed Rules

(I.I The fin,,1 r"ported li,·ul..e-sJlcdfic fill,) conSUmp'IIIIl {IJSFClshuli be l.Iunl,ut"d by liS" of the following formulu:



IISFC b,.lo.c·.Vtlc,foc fucl wnluruptoun III pound. (Jf ruel ptlf br~ke honepowcr­hour IIIJa/BIIP-IiR)

M( milliS or ruel. in pounds. USt,1I b} Iht" "lIgUlC durillH tile cold Itllrt 1~8t.

M .. .:· muss nf rud. in pounds. used 11)' tho ('n~il1t! durin» the hut bt,trl lcst.

In IP-UR, :- lot.IIlJlil~c hurlu:po"'l~r-huur. {t.r.l~c hurfu:powor intcgntled wilh rt·!tp.-ci 1o IlIIw) fur the cold slare h~8t.

mW-JlRu·· t,)11I1 hrake hora.!powt~r·houra (hr<Jke horbf'p("",'er Inlt'graled wilh rl't'tpt'c! lu tllne) (01' thtt hot aturt W8t.

It) The IIlU.S 01 fuel for the cold 8111rl .HIJ hot stMI lesl Is delermined from Ihe followill!! "qu8111in: M IC,/R.)lIf.I5J.61

(21 Melillinl! of "ymbolv:

~I M.I •• ull,,,·1. illllUunds. u ... d by .he l'llj.lllh: dunng the culJ or hot Bturt Itu,\.

(" GfitnHI of I:,Uh'IIl nWlItiuruJ our1n8 thu ( ulJ HI hot lila, I 1t'1Il.

G,. II2.JllItll.Oll •• U.008I) I Hc... •• • O.4ZljC~ .... 0.27) CO~ ••


t 1(',,,..... I h til tlLdl1 u ,II "rnih!(ion~. in Wlun. fllr cold of hoi ;.tdrt ksl

(;Om_ '" Cdl'bpn monoxid.t f!misblOn8. Ul /Ilrumll for (;uld ur hot start IL'Nt.

ro .... _= C.lrtJOn dinxitlt! emist;iolls. in Mrums fll( f:ohl,lr hut start 't-.l.

H . The lI\t!tI8UI't!tl hydN)twn to c.arboll rulia of Ihe f"d.

H., The Ul",Jfllti uf (<.Jehun in tht' fuul per grum or hJt!L

R.-12.01l/112.01l I ,,(!.lIOIl)1

(dl Sdlllple "illculution of lirake­",wdfic fuel wnsurnplion:

I J I A".urne Ihe folloWing lext results:

.. LUHQ COOi _-2H1

- 98 -

Federal R ...... I Vo\. 46. No ... I Wednesday. January 7. 1981 I Proposed Rules 1985

Cold Start Cycle Hot StoUt Cye 1e Tut l •• uttl Test Results

BlIP-HI 6.945 7.078

a 1.85 1.85

He mas. 37.08 grams 28.82 gram.

COm ... 357.69 Irams 350.33 gr ••

C°2masa 5419.62 gr •• 5361.32 Irams


Cs for cold start test • (12.011/(12.011 + (1.85)(1.008»)(37.08) + 0.429(357.69)

+ 0.273(5419.62) • 1665.10 grams

Gs for hoc .tart t •• t • (12.011/(12.011 + (1;85)(1.008»)<28.82) + 0.429050.33)

+ 0.273(5361.32) • 1638.88 Jrams

12 • 12.011/(12.011 + I.S5(I.OOS)} • .866

Me • (1665.10/.866)(1/453.6) • 4.24 lb ••

Ma • (1638.S8/.866)(1/453.6) • 4.17 lbs.

(2) Brake-specific fuel consuapcion result.:

85FC • 1/7(4.24) + 611(4.17)

1/7(6.945) .6/7(7.07S)


• .592 lb •• of fuel/HHP-HI

- 99 -

1968 Fedefal Regisler I Vol. 48. No.4 / Wednesuay. January 1. 1981 I Proposed Rules

46. A ,,,,w t 1IIl.134J-86 i8 added and fe6crved U8 (ollows:

,86.1343-M jR ......... dl 47. A n,·w § 116.1344-86 i. ddded and

reud. us ("lIow.:

§ 86.1344-'6 Required Intor_1ion. (a) The required leBI dald .hun be

grouvo.d into the following Ihree general ell legorh~s:

(I) Engine aetup and descriptive dahl. This dulu musl be provided 10 the EPA supervisor of engine lesting for each engine ."nl 10 the Admlnislrator for confirmatory tcsting prior to the iolitiKllon 01 ens,ne set-up. Thi. dala i. nt!ce .... ry 10 Insure Ihat EPA leal pt!rsonnci have Ihe correct deta In order 10 sct "I' and I.stlhe engine In a timely lind proper manner. Thie deta II nol rC'luil cd for ICbts performed by tbe manuCa,lurers.

(~) 1',,, ",.1 dilla. Thie dllt .. i. general It-sl ddlil Ill'll must be recorded for .... c:h te.' The dulll is of a more delCllpUve IIdture 8uch as Identification of Ihe lest omg,!!e. I".t site number. elc. AI IUch. Ihis d"ta cun be recorded III any lime within 24 hours of the tett.

(3) Test-dHt ... This data la phyaical 11.,,1 dala Ihat mUlt be recurded at the lime of lestins.

(Il) All diltu may be 8upplfed 10 the Atlminislralor by punch carda. magnellc Ilipe. or other electronic data procealins means. Acceptable dala formall and transmission lechniqucI will be provided in Ihe Applir.aUon Formal for Certificlltion ot the oppUcable Model Yeur.

Ie) Engine set-up data. Becau8e the speriflc h!sl [ui.:ililiea may change sumewtl!.1 with tim!!. tbe specinc dotll p"ranw\cra lind number of itema moy vary slillhlly. The Application Formal fur Certification (or Ihe applicable MOlle! y,,,,, will spcI:iCy the exact fC'Iulrenwnt8. In general. the follow Ins Iype of uuta wlll be required:

(l) El1llme manufacturer. I:':) Ensine system combination. P) Engine r.odp. lind CIO. ,.1 Eflginc id~nlification number. (5/ Afiplicable engine model rear. /0) Engine fucltyp~. (7) R"c"mmended oil type. (tl) E~hllu8t pipe configuration pipe

sizt,". etc. (II) CUI" ,dIe speed. (101 Uynilmomolcr idle 8po!lld.

{Autom"llc ""n.mission !!Ilgines only., {II/ Enl>!f1C parameter spcciflcalions

.uch liS "park liming. operating h·mpprulure. ndvunce CUr\.'I!S. etc.

(121 Engine performance data such 88. ","~imum BliP. ratcd spced. fuel now. Bll,,,rn.,,) spllcd. etc.

In) RCLOmmendcd start-up procedure.

(14) Maximum ."fe ellgine operating speed.

/15) Numb .. r of hours .'~r .. tion accumulu ted on engine.

116) Manufacturer'. recommended Inlet depression limit and typical in-use Inlet depression level.

(17) E~hdU.t srstcm. Ii) Diusel ensin"s. (AI Header pipe­

Ineide dianaeter. IBI Tailpipe Inside d,ameter. Ic) Minimum distance In·use between

tbe exhaust munilold flunge and the exit of the chassis exhausl system.

(01 Manufllcturer's recommended maximum exblluiOl b .. c:k prelsure limit for the engine.

(E) Typical back pressure a8 determined by the mo",imum bllck preSSlife application of the engine.

WI Minimum back preuure required to meet applicable noise regulalion8.

Iii) Cusulifle·fuded ell~iJlt·s. Typical In-liae back prcssure in vchide exhausl &y81em.

ldl Pre-test d .. tH. The foJ/owiDa data .hall be recorded. lind reported to the Admini.lr .. lor for each te.I conducted for Compliance With Ihe provisions of 40 CFR 116. Subpart A:

(11 Baslne"'~ltlllD comblnalloD. (2) Ensine Idllnlifiwllon. (3) Instrumenl operatorjsl. (41 Ensine operator{s). (5) Number of hours oC operation

accumulaled on the engine prior to beginning the teal sequence (Figure /lia&-12).

(6) Fuel identificlltion witb averqe of teal fuel uled.

(1) Date of mosl recenl IInolylicol uSllmbly calibration.

18) All perllnent InstrulI1enl Informuliun such 81 luning. lIoln. serilll numbc~s. detector number. calibralion curve number. etc. As long UI thiS Infomlstlon is Iruceable. it mlly be summarized by .y.tem numbe, or analyzer identification numbers.

Ie) Test data. Tha physlc .. { parameters necos611ry 10 compute Ihe tesl result. and lnaure accuracy of Ihe re.ulls ahaU be recorded for each teat conducted fot compliance with Ihe proviMionl of 40 CI-'R 116. Subpart A. Addillonalle.t dlltll may be recorded allho discretion of the manufacturer. Exlreme detoill of Ihe te81 measurements such 118 IInalyzer chart denections will gencrillly not be required on a routine buals to be reported 10 the Administralor for each test. unIon a dispute about the accuracy of Ihe d"ta nri8es. The following Iype of dill" shall be requirud to be reported 10 the Adminlslrlltor. The Application Formal (or Ccrtiflcolion for the applicaLle Model Yeur will .pedfy Ihe exacl requiremonl. which may !:hange

.lightly fJoom yellJ' to yellJ' wilh the additioD or delellon of certain itema.

(1) Date and time of day. (21 Teal number. (3) EngiDa Intake air or lest cell

temperature. (4) Barometric pressure. Nole.-A cenl,allaboratory baromcl.r

may be uaed; Provided. Ihal tndl.lduBllesl cell baromelril: pn!88unt are .hown /0 be ..,Ihin ±O.l percent of the baromelrlc pressure.' the cenlr.1 barometer locution.

(51 Engine Intake or lesl cell and CVS dilution air humidity.

(6) Muximum torque vcrsus 6peed curve a. determined In 166.1332. with minimum and maximum engine speeds.

(7) Measured maximum horsepower. maximum torque. and r"led speeds.

(81 Measured maximum horsepower and torque.

(9) IIlSh idle engine speed 'diesel engincs onlyJ.

(10) Fuel consumption al maximum power and torque (diesel engines only).

(111 Curb-Idla fuel now rllte. (12) Cold 80ak time Intervalond cool

down procedure •. 113) Temperalure set point of the

heuted continuoul analy.l. system component, (if applicable].

(141 Tai' cycle validation criteria as specified In 1116.1341 for each test phase (cold-hOI).

(15) Total CVS now rata wilh dilution faclor for each teet phale (cold-hotJ.

(16/ Sample concentralions (background correctedJ for HC. CO. Co.. and NO. &w each 18111 phase (cold­hotJ.

1171 Broke speciOc emissions IlI/BUP­hr) for He. CO and NO. for each lest pbQH (cold-IIot).

(18) The weighted (cold·hot) brake specific emls8ions (s/BIiP-hr) for Ihe total lest.

(19) The weighted (cold-bot) carbon balance brake apecific fual con.wnplion for the tollllle81.

(20J The number of hours of operation accwnulated on the anaIne aflur completing the tall sequencas described In Flaw- NII6-to.

(21) Additional requirod records for diesel eflJJines. (I) PreSS111'8 and temperalure of the dillilll exho.usl mixtura lind secondary-dilution air in Ihe cose of a double.dillltion .ystem at tne Inlel 10 the respective g88 meter{s) or now in,trumentation u8ed for particulale aampling.

(Ii) The tcmperlilure of tho dilute exhaust mixture Immediately before the parliculate liller.

liii) Cal meier or flow inslrument readings at the starl of ellllh allmplll period and at the Ilnd of each sumple period.

- 100 -

............. ter I Vol ... No .• I Wedneeday. January 7. 1981 I Proposed Rules 211'1

(Iv) ". .t.bllll8d pre·tett welaht and po.He.t wel8hl of each particulate aample filter.

(v) The telbparature Ind humidity of the ambient air In Which the partlculete Rltert were .t.b11111ed.

(vi' The temparetve. of the p. (t) HowI.la the holed .. mille line before die heated niter and (aJ belore the HFID. and the temparature of the control IYltemoi the heated hydrocarbon detector, , .. One. 11 __ 1_, '>45 ... , ... _---

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