Is it even possible for 2 people to fully repopulate the Earth? According to Adam and Eve, it is, but there are some serious dangers of inbreeding that could kill off the next generation before they even get started. Don't miss today's new experiment to find out if the Bible creation story could actually be true.
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So, there they are, Aiden and Ellie.
The only survivors to have not succumbed to the apocalypse.
Still in their late teens.
The two are in their prime, at least when it comes to making babies.
The good news.
Is they have the hots for each other, but can they repopulate the Earth? You all know that there’s a version of human history that involves two folks getting it on and kicking off.
Those, two star-struck lovers were Adam and Eve, a couple that made the Garden of Eden their home.
We’re, not exactly sure what kind of food they had to sustain their lives in the garden, but probably a bit more than the forbidden fruit.
As for Aiden and Ellie.
There is plenty of food on their lonely.
The, old, blue ball didn’t get whacked by an asteroid or anything.
It was forward-thinking, artificial intelligence that wiped everyone out, but then it destroyed itself just before it could finish off the last two humans.
The animals were still around.
The AI was programmed to ensure the sustainability of the Earth at any cost, and then it figured out that humans were going to destroy the planet.
So the only rational thing to do was to destroy all humans.
Whoever developed that program sure upset a lot of folks.
The first couple of months, Aiden and Ellie didn’t really think much about starting mankind.
They spent much of their time hanging out in rich people’s houses and driving fast cars.
Ellie, almost drove into a tree, one day, and after that, the couple decided not to take too many risks.
There was some serious business to take care.
They lived in Los, Angeles, California, which, having a mild climate meant.
The couple didn’t have anything to fear from a brutal winter and the fact there was no electricity.
Let’s just say that while the apocalypse was a bit of a downer, these two got very lucky in terms of their chances of survival.
They also had the added bonus of not being related.
That’s, a good thing, because studies have shown that when children are born from folks who are related there’s, a higher rate of infant mortality.
Even, if the kids survive, there’s a much higher chance that those kids will be born with some kind of defect., Nonetheless, Ellie and Aiden’s offspring might be born healthy.
But what about the offspring’s offspring? Now? We run into difficulties.
In a study undertaken in Czechoslovakia between the years 1933 and 1970.
Scientists looked at the children of parents who were first-degree relatives.
First-degree is someone in your direct family.
Procreating with these people isn’t generally a cool thing to do.
If first cousins get it on, the offspring has double the chance of having a birth.
In that study, the kids who were born to first-degree parents didn’t have great outcomes.
40 percent of them had very severe disabilities.
14 percent of them died because of their disabilities.
We have a very good real-life example of this, featuring a man you might think was trying to increase the population of his country.
That man was King Chulalongkorn of Thailand, who ruled from 1868 to 1910.
This guy did a lot of good things in terms of modernizing his country, and he was also a formidable baby-maker.
Just as his father had been.
That father was King Mongkut, who had 82 children in total.
One of them was Chulalongkorn.
Following in his daddy’s footsteps, Chulalongkorn had a lot of wives, consorts, and concubines.
Adding up to 116 women in total.
To keep the bloodline pure, several of his partners with whom he had children were actually his half-sisters.
Back in those days.
It still wasn’t clear how bad inbreeding, was.
But the proof soon became evident in the pudding, so to speak.
He had a kid with a half-sister named Daksinajar Naradhirajbutri.
It died just hours after it was born.
He had eight kids with half-sister Savang Vadhana.
One of them lived for just three days, and most of them didn’t make it to adulthood.
Vadhana herself lived until the ripe old age of 93.
She was the product of inbreeding.
If you research what happened to his 77 children, you see that many, and we are talking many, didn’t live very long at all.
A lot of them died when they were barely out of their fancy.
Infant clothes., Many others died in their twenties and thirties.
European royalty was also into keeping things in the family to ensure the bloodline was pure and also to make certain money and property stayed with the family.
After someone passed, away.
European inbreeding in royal families was very evident in the Spanish Habsburg dynasty.
Offspring were often weak and sickly, and there was also the now-famous deformity called the Hapsburg.
The internet might have been down in Aiden and Ellie’s brave new world, but they did have access to books and libraries, and being the prudent folks they were.
They read up on inbreeding.
After, going through a few books on the matter.
They were rightfully afraid their kids’ kids would bite the dust just as soon as they let out that first primal scream or perhaps spend their short lives hobbling around, while carrying a jaw that would put Desperate Dan to shame.
The couple also read about the Colt family in Australia and the marriage between June and Jim.
In short, June was the child of a brother and sister.
She married Jim, Colt.
They were in New Zealand at the time.
They had seven kids of their own and moved to Australia.
More kids were born once those kids were old enough to have children, but the Colts didn’t stray much farther than their own home.
If you get what we mean.
The children were born through incest.
A lot of the kids had defects, and some seemed a little mentally deranged and did things like hurt.
Many were very sickly and prone to disease.
Incest wasn’t working out very well for the family.
When an investigator found them.
He said it was “like, nothing I've, ever seen.” This story sent shivers down Aiden and Ellie’s spines, with both of them just sitting for a while in the library thinking about a team of kids running around with fungal feet, trying to set cows on fire.
Did it have to be that way? That’s, the big question? Today.
Some, not many, of King Chulalongkorn’s children that he had with his sisters, went on to have fairly normal lives, although admittedly it’s hard to find kids who lived past the age of 40., Aiden and Ellie were now certain that a small gene pool was going to lead to a future offspring of physically and mentally ill kids.
Once their own children started procreating.
What choice did they have? They had one kid, a boy, and named him Carl.
They had another kid and they named him.
Damn, they thought, two boys.
Then Carl accidentally killed Asher when they were fighting over toys, after which Ellie and Aiden had a third child and named him Sebastian.
Another boy! With not much to do.
These two last adult humans just kept pumping out kid after kid.
As many in fact, as was possible, given Ellie’s natural aging, process., The kids for the most part grew up fine, but the kids’ kids were a different matter.
Let’s us explain something now, before we get to the strange case of the extended family.
You’ve heard of that thing called DNA.
It has packaged into it.
23 pairs of chromosomes.
Within every chromosome.
There are hundreds of thousands of genes.
It’s these things that will determine human characteristics, such as hair color, but some of them are also bad to the bone.
Every gene has a couple of copies and they are called alleles.
Two people have a child.
They pass on.
One pair to the child.
There are dominant and recessive genes, too.
If, one pair of genes, is dominant.
You will have the trait of that gene.
When it’s passed on to you.
With recessive genes, it is different, because you need both pairs of genes to gain the trait.
The gene for brown eyes is dominant.
So if you get that you will have brown eyes.
But for blues eyes, it is different, because that gene is recessive.
You’d need both recessive genes to get blue eyes.
This case, both your parents passed on blue-eyed pairs of genes, but if one of your parents had the brown-eyed gene, you’d get brown eyes.
Importantly, though, as you know, not all children get the same DNA from their parents unless they are twins.
You get 50 percent of your DNA from both parents, making 100 percent.
Imagine that DNA, say, from your mom was half a pack of cards.
The next child is born.
The pack is shuffled, so that the next child doesn’t get the same DNA with all the same genes.
If there were lots of children and you kept shuffling the pack, at some point, some sets of genes will look similar to another.
This is important to know as we go along with the Ellie and Aiden story.
Good news is that many defective traits are carried in recessive genes.
This is great, because they aren’t very common, and to get that harmful, trait, you’ll have to get a pair of them.
This is exactly why it is good to play the field with strangers.
Ok, that’s a joke, but if your parents are related, there is a more chance.
They carry some defective gene, and in that case, the child might get a pair, and one thing leads to another, and a child is born with a chin that looks like an old boot.
There are generations all from the same gene pool, at some point, even with all the shuffling, some bad genes might match.
The Hapsburg, Charles II of Spain, was the man famous for his chin.
It took generations of inbreeding to make him like that.
He was born with scores of defects and disabilities, which made his life hell.
After many years of suffering.
He died aged 38.
To give you an idea of what can go, wrong, here’s, what his autopsy report said: “Heart was the size of a peppercorn;, his lungs corroded;, his intestines rotten and gangrenous;.
He had a single testicle, black as coal, and his head was full of water.”.
When Ellie read that she fainted on the spot, just thinking about future generations of her family.
The first thing that came to mind was a grandkid of hers.
Looking like a character from a movie she’d watched as a kid called “The, Toxic, Avenger.” But, then one day she was reading another book, and something improved.
Her grim, mood.
She read the lines, “The evidence for the short-term effects of low genetic diversity is very strong, but all these things are probabilistic.
There are stories of incredible journeys back from the brink.
- anything is possible.”.
You can get very lucky playing.
Ellie tried to translate that in laymen’s terms and came to the conclusion that if she and Aiden knocked out enough kids and those kids knocked out enough kids, then, despite the fact there will be lots of challenges.
(Cow burning even), some of the kids could possibly flourish and the future of mankind could be in the bag.
Ellie’s hair eventually turned a shade of gray, and at that time her beloved husband was a formidable farmer.
Things didn’t seem too bad, but some of her grandkids had lives that were, as one of her favorite writers would have put it, “nasty and short”.
She and Aiden had 10 sons, 18 daughters, in total.
They in turn had kids with each other, because that’s just how things had to be.
Evolution actually wants us to be attracted to people who are genetically different from us, but the future of mankind demanded they make do with each other.
Ellie was still worried.
Having read that there is more chance of defects.
The more inbreeding takes place, such as what happened to the Hapsburgs.
Only Ellie knew what genes all her grandkids had.
She could safely match them, so children weren’t born unhealthy, but that wasn’t possible.
She had a reason for some optimism, though, when she read about the people of the small island called Pingelap, who lived far from the busy world in the western Pacific.
These people were almost wiped out in the 18th century when a typhoon struck the island, but 20 of them.
They flourished after, even though a recessive gene ensured that many years later, a tenth of the island was afflicted with color-blindness.
This disorder, called complete achromatopsia, was thought to have come from one man.
It didn’t show up in the population until the fourth generation.
But still, not everyone got it.
This made Ellie happy.
She sat there with the book in her hand and with one of her granddaughters crying from a crib nearby.
She repeated those words in her mind, “Anything is possible.
Anything is possible.”.
We are going to bounce back.
She said under her breath in a determined voice, even though out of the corner of her eye, she glimpsed one of her less successful by-products giggling, while throwing an aerosol can into a small fire.
There was a long way to go.
Yet, and what’s called the “Founder effect” was in full swing – meaning a profound lack of genetic diversity as generations, interbreed.
Still, while Ellie’s family, admittedly all looked very similar.
She held out hope that in generations to come, there would be natural mutations, and some diversity would occur.
Since Aiden in those days seemed only interested in tending to his vegetables and cattle – he’d become so distant – Ellie read more and more.
In, some ways.
They were a perfect couple, with she being the academic one and he being so good.
With his hands.
One day, Ellie told Aiden that there were instances in history in which animals likely created entire populations after starting as pairs.
They were eating.
When she looked at him and shouted “rats!”., “What?” replied, Aiden, feeling, confused., She told him.
A single pair of rats started a population on some island and the rats thrived.
He then gave her a familiar look and said, “Don’t.
Tell me you read that on one of those printouts from that old, website, Quora.” Ellie went quiet and returned to her room, where she read the printout again.
It said, “Starlings in North America originated from just 60 individuals;.
There are a couple hundred million of them, now, most of which are nearly genetically identical.”.
That seemed like good news, but she understood that a “small population” was different from the last two.
She couldn’t find any examples in her books when an animal species had gone down to the last pair and then started up, again.
She was 93., Aiden, 92, held her hand as she drifted into the great unknown.
Her side were all her.
Kids, grandkids, and great-grandkids.
One of them, known as “Chinny” to the rest, made her moan in distress just before passing away.
The poor kid had just put some broken glass in his mouth.
She remembered some words written by a scientist back in 2015.
“If, the whole world were founded by two people.
You would have to get lucky in the genetic lottery.
Many times.” Ellie and Aiden might have been lucky, but, as Ellie took her dying breath, she just couldn’t know.
Surrounded by all those faces, things didn’t look too bad.
She knew things could take a turn for the worst, and she also knew that.
A long time ago some researchers had said you’d probably need 98 unrelated humans to repopulate a planet, but there she was.
Looking at people who had come from her and Aiden.
So, could it happen, really, the repopulation of the planet from these two? The answer is yes, it could, maybe, but as those scientists said, there would have to be a lot of luck.
Perhaps if it did happen, thousands of years later.
No one would believe the story of Ellie and Aiden, the avid reader and the cabbage patch kid.
Is, scientists aren’t sure how we evolved at the beginning, but they certainly don’t think it all kicked off with two randy people in the Garden of Eden.
They know there were different types of humans, (the homo genus) hanging about in Africa around a couple of million years, ago, such as Homo habilis, (handyman), Homo, erectus, (upright man), and then it took quite a while for the presence of Homo sapiens, uptight, man.
It can be translated as wise, man., Before, homo sapiens, the oldest form of humans, mated, with newer kinds of humans, such as homo neanderthalensis, (Neanderthals)., Neanderthals and modern humans.
So, in short.
It wasn’t as if there was only a very small gene pool when things started.
With, that in mind, we can’t look at the case of Ellie and Aiden and compare it with something from the past.
We can only hypothesize that if two people were left alone on the planet, they might be able to fill it up.
It’s, a long shot, but Ellie and Aiden at least tried.
You really should watch “Why It Would, Suck, To, Live, Through, The, End, Of, The, Universe.” Or, have a look at...
While it is theoretically possible for two people to repopulate the Earth, it would be extremely difficult and unlikely. Sure, if one is male and one is female and they are both fertile. The problem is, after about 12 generations, the population would be extremely homogenous.How long would it take for 2 people to populate the earth? ›
Well, it would all work out over hundreds of thousands of years certainly. Groups would split up, become separated, and form new groups. Each one of these would then have their own genetic baggage. For example, if current theories are to be believed, our ancestors left Africa in waves over the past 100,000 years or so.How many people would you need to repopulate Earth? ›
This means that, in a hypothetical apocalypse, humanity would need a lot more than a handful of survivors to repopulate effectively. However, to retain evolutionary potential – to remain genetically flexible and diverse – the IUCN criteria suggest we would need at least 500 effective individuals.How many people would you need to repopulate Earth without inbreeding? ›
research on minimum viable population
They created the “50/500” rule, which suggested that a minimum population size of 50 was necessary to combat inbreeding and a minimum of 500 individuals was needed to reduce genetic drift.
No. You need more genetic variability than that or genetic weaknesses can start to become a problem. In a small population, the absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt.When did humans stop inbreeding? ›
Early humans seem to have recognised the dangers of inbreeding at least 34,000 years ago, and developed surprisingly sophisticated social and mating networks to avoid it, new research has found.What will the population be in 200 years? ›
An oft-quoted statistic about the growth of human population is that it took 200,000 years to reach one billion. But in the 200 years after that, the world was teeming with seven billion people. The United Nations has predicted this will reach 9.7 billion by 2050 and 11 billion by 2100.What is the lowest human population in history? ›
Explanation: Around 70,000 years ago, a supergiant volcanic eruption in Indonesia caused a global cooling event that may have lasted up to 1,000 years. This would have caused a catastrophic collapse in human, and many other species, on Earth. The human population would have been around 3,000 to 10,000 people.What percentage of Earth is livable for humans? ›
The total land surface area of Earth is about 57,308,738 square miles, of which about 33% is desert and about 24% is mountainous. Subtracting this uninhabitable 57% (32,665,981 mi2) from the total land area leaves 24,642,757 square miles or 15.77 billion acres (43%) of habitable land.What is the minimum viable population? ›
The minimum viable population size is an estimate of the number of individuals required for a high probability of survival of a population over a given period of time. A commonly used definition is a higher than 95% probability of persistence over 100 years.
The team determined that 125 people, or 1 in roughly every 3,600, met their criteria for inbreeding, meaning the parents were likely either first-degree relatives (siblings, for example), or second-degree relatives (aunts or uncles, among other possibilities).Do humans avoid inbreeding? ›
There is also much evidence that, like other social animals, humans do not seek to maximize outbreeding, but rather to maintain an optimal balance between outbreeding and inbreeding. Close inbreeding reduces fitness through inbreeding depression, but some inbreeding brings the benefits of nepotism.What is the limit for inbreeding? ›
There is no defined limit as to what is an acceptable level of inbreeding in domestic animal populations. However, inbreeding depression is likely to be more apparent once inbreeding levels get to above 10%.What is the smallest sustainable human population? ›
There's a thing called minimum viable population. If a species goes below it, there is not enough genetic variety to have healthy young. For humans it's hypothesised to be around 160. There are isolated populations of about 300 that survived for a long time with just some genetic deformations.What is inbreed depression? ›
Inbreeding depression is the reduced survival and fertility of offspring of related individuals. Large effects are documented in wild animal and plant populations, as well as in humans. Intercrossing inbred strains improves yield (heterosis).What happens with inbred humans? ›
Studies have confirmed an increase in several genetic disorders due to inbreeding such as blindness, hearing loss, neonatal diabetes, limb malformations, disorders of sex development, schizophrenia and several others.How many kids did ancient humans have? ›
A focus on the prehistoric mother
“This includes our finding that the average Neolithic woman bore between 8 and 10 children.” But what really makes this project unique was its focus on the role of the prehistoric mother.
Humans are pretty unusual in having sex throughout the year rather than saving it for a specific mating season. Most animals time their reproductive season so that young are born or hatch when there is more food available and the weather isn't so harsh.Did early humans mate with animals? ›
Scientists also announced last year that our ancestors had mated with another extinct species, and this week, more evidence is showing how widespread that interbreeding was. We know little about this extinct species.What will life be like in 2050? ›
According to a US report, the sea level will increase by 2050. Due to which many cities and islands situated on the shores of the sea will get absorbed in the water. By 2050, 50% of jobs will also be lost because robots will be doing most of the work at that time. Let us tell you that 2050 will be a challenge to death.
In the next 1,000 years, the amount of languages spoken on the planet are set to seriously diminish, and all that extra heat and UV radiation could see darker skin become an evolutionary advantage. And we're all set to get a whole lot taller and thinner, if we want to survive, that is.What will life be like in 2100? ›
The world in 2100 will be hotter, with more extreme weather and more natural disasters such as hurricanes and wildfires. How much hotter? It is impossible to know right now, as it will depend on our actions during the next 80 years. There are different scenarios, from the world being 1.5ºC to 5ºC hotter by 2100.How many times did humans almost go extinct? ›
There are three times in history during which humans nearly went extinct. Here's what threatened us, and how we survived.What was the human population in 0 AD? ›
1000 years BCE the world population was 50 million people. 500 years BCE it was 100 million, and in the year 0 around 200 million people were estimated to live on Earth.Is Earth's human population declining? ›
World's population could plummet to 6 billion by the end of the century, study suggests. A new model has predicted that Earth's population is likely to decrease in all scenarios across the next century and will peak nowhere near the 11 billion previously forecast.Is there anywhere on Earth untouched by humans? ›
The North Sentinel Island in the Bay of Bengal is arguably one of the most isolated places on earth, both through remote location and inaccessible population. The small island of around 60 square km is located off the Norwest coast of Indonesia and has been far from explored.How much of Earth is still undiscovered? ›
Just 5% of Earth's landscape is untouched.How far is man harming the Earth? ›
Nature feeling the squeeze
As a result, humans have directly altered at least 70% of Earth's land, mainly for growing plants and keeping animals. These activities necessitate deforestation, the degradation of land, loss of biodiversity and pollution, and they have the biggest impacts on land and freshwater ecosystems.
The minimum number of people required to sustain indefinitely an infectious pathogen, i.e., large enough to ensure that there is a specified probability of infectious agents encountering susceptible hosts.What is maximum population that can be supported? ›
The maximum population size that can be supported by the environment is called carrying capacity.
Limiting factors include a low food supply and lack of space. Competition for resources like food and space cause the growth rate to stop increasing, so the population levels off. The carrying capacity (K) is the maximum population size that can be supported in a particular area without destroying the habitat.What nationality has the most inbreeding? ›
- Pakistan - 50%+
- Qatar - 50%+
- Afghanistan - 40-49%
- Bahrain - 40-49%
- Jordan - 40-49%
- Mauritania - 40-49%
- Sudan - 40-49%
- Yemen - 40-49%
Abstract. The social and cultural origins of the Hutterian Brethren, the most inbred population in North America, are described along with the characteristics that make the group useful for genetic studies. The Hutterites represent a closed population, with high levels of fertility and consanguinity.Which breed has a high rate of inbreeding? ›
The highest level of inbreeding by far (> 80%) is for the Norwegian Lundehund.How did Native Americans prevent inbreeding? ›
Ancient humans had to arrange dating or mating deals with neighboring tribes to avoid inbreeding.How did early humans pick a mate? ›
Summary: Male physical competition, not attraction, was central in winning mates among human ancestors, according to an anthropologist in a new study.How did humans used to mate? ›
It's thought that at one time, human ancestors did engage in chimp-like habits of sex and child-rearing, in which strong alpha males mated freely with the females of their choice, and then left the child-raising duties to them.What states is inbreeding most common? ›
Inbreeding is more common in the following states: Washington, Oregon, Montana, South Dakota, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Maine.Which US state has the highest rate of inbreeding? ›
Speaking of which, what is the most inbred state of the US? Kentucky! As a result of inbreeding eastern Kentucky, has the highest inbreeding rates of any section of the state. Despite increasing diversity, some communities and families remain isolated on purpose.Does inbreeding affect DNA? ›
Inbreeding increases the risk of recessive gene disorders
Inbreeding also increases the risk of disorders caused by recessive genes. These disorders can lead to calf abnormalities, miscarriages and stillbirths. Animals must have two copies of a recessive gene to have the disorder.
There are several countries around the world that are at or near ZPG, including Iceland, Germany, Portugal, and Poland.Can human population grow indefinitely? ›
Human population, now nearing 8 billion, cannot continue to grow indefinitely. There are limits to the life-sustaining resources earth can provide us. In other words, there is a carrying capacity for human life on our planet.How long would it take to repopulate the Earth? ›
It is believed that due to severe climate changes causing widespread drought in Africa about 70,000 years ago, almost all humans were wiped out until things got wet once again and people were able to migrate. So without cars, trains, planes, or any technology to help, you are looking at 70,000 years.What syndrome is caused by inbreeding? ›
Examples of specific genetic disorders associated with inbreeding include schizophrenia, limb malformation, blindness, congenital heart disease, and neonatal diabetes. The House of Habsburg may be the best example of the effects of inbreeding in humans.What are the advantages of inbreeding? ›
- Inbreeding leads to exposure and elimination of harmful recessive genes.
- Inbreeding helps in the accumulation of superior genes. Through selection, less desirable genes can be eliminated, resulting in an increase in the productivity of the inbred population.
Onion, carrot, maize, sunflower, etc. are a few examples of plants showing inbreeding depression. They reproduce either by the self-pollination or cross-pollination process. This phenomenon is observed in several other plant species that are further grouped based on the following four categories.Did the first humans have to inbreed? ›
Early humans and other hominins such as Neanderthals appear to have lived in small family units. The small population size made inbreeding likely, but among anatomically modern humans it eventually ceased to be commonplace; when this happened, however, is unclear.What happens when two blood relatives have a baby? ›
When parents are blood relatives, there is a higher risk of disease and birth defects, stillbirths, infant mortality and a shorter life expectancy. To have a child with severe diseases and disorders may cause heavy strain for the family in question.How do lions avoid inbreeding? ›
Prides exhibit inbreeding avoidance; mating between related pride members is rare, males tend to leave prides before their daughters start mating and males generally move far away from their natal pride's home range [18, 19, 22, 23].How long did it take humans to populate the world? ›
The world's current population is the result of a more recent migration, which began 70 to 65,000 years.
It is believed that due to severe climate changes causing widespread drought in Africa about 70,000 years ago, almost all humans were wiped out until things got wet once again and people were able to migrate. So without cars, trains, planes, or any technology to help, you are looking at 70,000 years.How long did it take for the human population to go from 1 billion to 2 billion? ›
|World population milestones in billions (USCB estimates)|
The only realistic scenario for the evolution of two species out of ours would probably be if we expanded beyond our home planet and then lost contact with the settlers. If both populations survived long enough – much more than 100,000 years – we might see divergence and maybe two species of humans.When did Adam and Eve live? ›
They used these variations to create a more reliable molecular clock and found that Adam lived between 120,000 and 156,000 years ago. A comparable analysis of the same men's mtDNA sequences suggested that Eve lived between 99,000 and 148,000 years ago1.